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4K Video Surveillance Cameras. Are They Right For Me?

4K surveillance is the latest offering in the world of HD video surveillance cameras. The 4K label on a camera means that the device will record images at a level of about 12 megapixels or video at double the resolution of a standard HD TV ( x ).

So, have you ever thought about buying a 4K security camera? Or should you continue to use 5MP/p/p security cameras? That&#;s exactly what I&#;m going to show you in this article — 4K vs. 5MP vs. p (2MP) vs. p security cameras.

Below is a complete comparison between 4K security cameras, 5MP security cameras, p security cameras, and p security cameras, as well as insights into what might happen in the future.

4K vs 5MP vs p vs p Security Cameras: Resolution Differences

Before we go any further, what&#;s the resolution of 4K security cameras, 5MP security cameras, p security cameras and p security cameras?

Let&#;s dive in:

  • 4K Ultra HD security cameras possess a high resolution of * with over 8 million pixels. And they are also called 8MP/p security cameras. Though 4K IP cameras are not budget-accessible and prevailing now, they can greatly enhance your video streaming experience with no doubt.
  • 5MP Super HD security cameras, also known as 5MP security cameras, gain a resolution of * They are currently the mainstream in the security camera filed and deliver much clearer images than p and p IP cameras.
  • p Full HD security cameras produce images with the resolution of * They are suitable for the general-purpose video surveillance but sometimes may fail to figure out small details from a distance.
  • p HD security cameras shoot images with * pixels per unit. Due to the growing demand for higher quality images and videos, p security IP cameras are now gradually losing their grip in the market.
ResolutionImage size in pixelsPixles per imageAspect RatioScanning type
4K3,×2,8,,Progressive
5MP2,×1,4,,Progressive
p1,×1,2,,Progressive
p1,×,Progressive

Note: On top of the listed above, you may also find other security cameras in various resolutions for sale, like the 5MP security cameras, which edge out 4MP security cameras in terms of the image quality.

4K vs 5MP vs p vs p Security Cameras: Full Comparison List

Now, let&#;s drill down deeper to check out the differences among 4K security cameras, 5MP security cameras, p security cameras and p security cameras, from the following aspects:

1. Image Quality

The higher the security camera resolution, the better image quality and more vivid details you will obtain.

So it&#;s easy to conclude that 4K IP security cameras deliver sharper and clearer images than 5MP IP security cameras, p IP security cameras and p IP security cameras.

Let&#;s say you intend to capture the license plate numbers, both 4K security cameras and 5MP IP cameras will have a good shot for you to recognize the numbers from a distance.

But for p CCTV security cameras, it is uncertain depending on the camera quality and distance. While the chances are slim for p video surveillance cameras to shoot the plate numbers.

2. Field of View

Broadly speaking, megapixel security cameras are often packed with wide-angle lenses.

And that&#;s why the 4K megapixel security cameras generally have a wider field of view than the 5MP surveillance cameras, p surveillance cameras and p surveillance cameras.

What does this exactly mean for you?

It means that if you need to monitor a large area with four p HD security cameras, only ONE single 4K CCTV security camera will get the job done, leaving no blind spots and no opportunity for potential thieves.

3. Bandwidth & Storage Consumption

In the same H video standard, there is no doubt that 4K ultra HD security cameras would require more bandwidth usage and storage consumption, compared with 5MP IP cameras, p IP cameras and p IP cameras.

But thanks to H high-efficiency coding adopted by 4K IP security cameras, the bandwidth utilization and storage consumption can be reduced by about 50% without sacrificing the image quality.

So don&#;t fall into this common myth again, that 4K surveillance cameras eat up more bandwidth and take up more storage space than 5MP, p or p CCTV security cameras.

4. Compatibility

If you already have a 4MP monitor or TV, the 5MP IP security cameras, p IP security cameras and p IP security cameras should have no problem displaying images on it.

But with a 4K security IP camera, you may either choose to buy a 4K monitor/TV (depending on your budget) or lower the image resolution (would defeat your original purpose to buy 4K security systems).

Having that said, as the 4K technology has already stepped into the monitor and TV market, how long do you think you have to wait before you replace your existing monitor or TV with the 4K resolution?

The truth is, most proactive consumers would rather spend a few extra hundred dollars for a 4K monitor that has more recent technology and avoid having to upgrade again in a few years.

So it eventually comes down to striking a balance between your budget and your future needs.

5. Cost

Up until now, the 4K CCTV security cameras are relatively more expensive than 5MP, p and p CCTV security cameras.

And the available options are also few.

Now most security camera sellers opt for providing 5MP or 6MP security cameras first before releasing their 4K products out of the limitation of demanding technology or the cost.

Yet, as the 4K technology advances, it would be simply a matter of time for the 4K IP cameras to become budget-friendly.

Also, don&#;t forget that ONE single 4K security camera is enough to cover large areas, thus reducing your cost to add more surveillance cameras.

4K vs 5MP vs P vs p Security Cameras: Which One Should You Choose

I now would like to upgrade and therefore was wondering whether it is worth getting a 4K camera or get something cheaper with /p resolution?

You must have also been bothered by this question, right?

Do remember that you don&#;t necessarily have to go all the way up to 4K or 8MP security cameras.

Those IP cameras with resolutions in between, like the 4MP and 5MP security cameras, can also present high quality images and meet your surveillance needs.

So look through the usages of 4K security cameras, 5MP security cameras, p security cameras and p security cameras below to decide which your best bet is.

When to Choose 4K Surveillance Cameras:

  • You have a significant budget.
  • You require the highest resolution video surveillance and the cost will be justified by your usage.
  • You need to monitor large areas with one single security camera.
  • You have recently upgraded or plan to upgrade your monitor/TV or 4K resolution.
  • You need a future-proofing video surveillance camera.

Typical Scenarios:

  • Your small businesses, like shops, bars, restaurants, hotels, etc.
  • Warehouses
  • Parking lots
  • Driveways
  • Multi-tenant buildings and more

Watch the high-resolution video of a horrible rollover accident captured by the 4K security camera system ZOSI 8TNW4.

When to Choose 5MP Security Cameras:

  • You want to gain high quality images with vivid details from a distance (such as for plate recognition).
  • 5MP resolution is enough for your applications.
  • You have an enough budget.

Typical Scenarios:

  • Entrances to your home, like front doors, back doors, etc.
  • Garage
  • Driveways
  • Small businesses

Check out the high quality video shared by a user of ZOSI 5MP security camera.

When to Choose p Security Cameras:

  • You are on a tight budget.
  • You simply want general-purpose surveillance.
  • You need a battery powered security camera (p is currently the highest standard among battery cameras).

Typical Scenarios:

  • Barn & farms
  • Vacation homes
  • Construction sites
  • RVs
  • Boats & marina

Important Note: Actually, some high quality p Full HD security cameras might also offer you clear images with vivid details, just like the ZOSI C p rechargeable battery security camera (shown as below).

C Wire Free Rechargeable Battery Powered Camera

% Wire-Free; Reliable Battery Performance; P HD & 80ft Infrared Night Vision; PIR & motion detection; 2 Way Audio & Weatherproof IP

When to Choose p Security Cameras:

The simple answer is: NEVER.

Why not?

Not only because the HD security cameras deliver blurry and low-quality images, they also no long hold advantages in price over p or 5MP security cameras.

If you are on a tight budget, you can even buy the best and cheap p or 5MP security cameras below $

So there&#;s simply no good reason to invest your hard-earned money in these low-resolution p CCTV security cameras.

Now that you have learned the differences among 4K security cameras, 5MP security cameras, p security cameras and p security cameras, you can be off to choose the one that best meets your security needs and budget.

Let me know what your option is in the comments below. I&#;d love to hear your thoughts and ideas!

Sours: https://www.zositech.com/4k-vs-5mp-vsp-vsp-security-camera/

Logitech C HD Webcam

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C HD WEBCAM

Basic HD p video calling

SIMPLE HD VIDEO CALLS

The C HD Webcam gives you sharp, smooth conference calls (p/30fps) in a widescreen format. Automatic light correction shows you in lifelike, natural colors.

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WIDESCREEN HD P VIDEO CALLS

Crisp HD p/30 fps video calls with diagonal 55° field of view and auto light correction. Compatible with popular platforms including SkypeTM and Zoom®.

MONO NOISE-REDUCING MIC

The built-in noise-reducing mic makes sure your voice comes across clearly up to meters away, even if you’re in busy surroundings.

AUTO-LIGHT CORRECTION

C’s RightLightTM 2 feature adjusts to lighting conditions, producing brighter, contrasted images to help you look good in all your conference calls.

FIRM MOUNTING OPTION

The adjustable universal clip lets you attach the camera securely to your screen or laptop, or fold the clip and set the webcam on a shelf. You’re always ready for your next video call.

C HD WEBCAM

Basic HD p video calling

C HD WEBCAM

Basic HD p video calling

Free shipping on orders GBP and over.


  • Dimensions including fixed mounting clip

    • Height: mm
    • Width: mm
    • Depth: mm
    • Cable length: m
    • Weight: 75 g
  • Compatible with

    • Windows® 7 or later
    • macOS or later
    • Chrome OS™
    • USB - A port

    Works with popular calling platforms.

  • Max Resolution: p/30fps

    Diagonal field of view (dFoV): 55°

    Universal mounting clip fits laptops, LCD or monitors

    • 1 webcam with m attached USB - A cable
    • User documentation
  • 2-Year Limited Hardware Warranty

Getting Started

Find all the documentation we have available to get this product up and running quickly. 

PRODUCT REGISTRATION

Register your product for faster access to support and to activate any applicable warranties. 

FAQS

If you have any questions, we probably have the answers that you're looking for.

Downloads

Find any available downloads that help extend the capabilities of this product. 

Warranty

If you are not completely satisfied with your purchase we want to try to make it right.

Contact Us

Still can't find the answers you're looking for? Drop us a line and an agent will take it from there.  

Whether presenting live or recording material for sharing later, a standalone webcam provides the flexibility students and teachers need. Take still or video images from different angles and show work more clearly to make learning more dynamic, detailed and interactive.

WARRANTY

3-Year Warranty with Customer Care support

Sours: https://www.logitech.com/en-gb/products/webcams/chd-webcam.html
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  • A state of the art & expandable surveillance system with video technology equivalent to p HD resolution
  • Set & forget by recording continuously from 4 channels for 30 days+ onto a GB hard drive, even longer with motion detection
  • Seeing is believing with 2 x p HD Cameras (1 Megapixel) perfect for front & back door areas & more
  • Expand by adding up to any 2 Swann PRO-AXXX cameras of your choice for full 4 channel monitoring
  • Save time & have peace of mind by easily locating incident video, then transfer to external storage via USB or network
  • View live or playback video in high definition on your HDTV, LCD screen or monitor via HDMI connection or VGA port
  • Connect in minutes using SwannLink ‘Peer-to-Peer’ easy network connection software
  • Surveillance in the palm of your hand with live viewing on 3G/4G-enabled Smartphone & tablets including, iPhone, iPad, Android devices and more* using the free SwannView Link app

^P recording only possible with PRO-AXXX cameras
+ 30 days recording achieved using lower settings, default settings give 4 days recording
* Monitor, tablet and mobile phones not included. Not all handsets supported
Sours: https://www.swann.com/us/swdvk

Editor’s Note: This blog post was originally published in February and has been revised to reflect industry updates.

When deciding whether to purchase p or p security cameras, resolution is a top specification. This indicates the level of detail and how well or poorly intruders would be effectively identified or recognized via still images or video recordings.

Recordings at p-resolution are appropriate for many users, but don’t cost much less than more sophisticated cameras. p models require more storage and bandwidth, but also offer greater detail and minimal price increases. While either is a solid option for home or commercial security, higher-resolution surveillance is the slightly better choice if your budget permits. 

 

The following is a helpful breakdown of some of the many advantages of p- and p-resolution security cameras.

 

Defining Differences

While doesn’t seem to be much greater than , the total picture size actually contains twice as many pixels, because the width increases proportionally as the image becomes larger.

It’s important to first understand what resolution designations actually mean. These numbers represent the quantity of vertical pixels (p)—tiny dots of color—in a recorded image. It affects how much a picture can be enlarged without sacrificing detail—the higher the resolution, the bigger the image.

While doesn’t seem to be much greater than , the total picture size actually contains twice as many pixels, because the width increases proportionally as the image becomes larger. This can help with identification and recognition at distance.

Each space has unique camera requirements depending on size, shape, and other factors. Small, well-lit spaces with a clear field of vision can be effectively serviced by p systems, while larger spaces require an upgrade.

 

vsSecurityCameras 

Memory & Streaming

Higher resolution offers greater detail, but also comprises more memory. A one-hour p recording uses mb (megabytes) of space, while the same video at p consumes only mb.

It’s important to have enough storage to cover the longest length of time you’ll be away from home. If you regularly go on vacation, you’ll need enough memory card space to record at least one week of footage.


Real-time video streaming to a mobile device will be easier with p quality due to its lower bandwidth requirements. Most Internet connections can easily stream at p without issues, but a slowdown may cause lag with higher resolution cameras.

 

Affordable Storage

Even when recording continuously for an entire week, a p camera will use only GB (gigabytes) of space. Many modern cameras also have advanced features, such as motion sensors and video analytics. Since these are triggered only when movement is detected, they extend memory, storage, battery life, and other energy-saving capabilities.

With the advent of cloud storage, some video systems might not even need a memory card. Remote video monitoring enables real-time recordings accessible from any mobile device. Varying in price and plans, subscription-based cloud storage facilitates enough space up to one month.

With the advent of cloud storage, some video systems might not even need a memory card. Remote video monitoring enables real-time recordings accessible from any mobile device.

 

Detail

Before selecting a security camera, consider its purpose: to identify or recognize intruders and occupants. The terms recognize and identify actually represent industry standards outlining qualified image sizes.

To recognize a person, your video requires a picture at least 20 pixels wide. You just have to know you’ve seen them before; it’s not necessary to know where you saw them.

Identification means the image has enough detail to confidently point someone out when seen in person, even if you’ve previously viewed them on video. Depending on lighting conditions, a legitimate identification requires an image between 40 and 80 pixels.

 

Proximity

A higher-resolution camera packs more pixels into an image, so it aids with recognition and identification at greater distances. p is best when deciphering identifications from longer distances and bigger properties. Most homes don’t have large enough living spaces to require an upgrade, but there are some instances where this could help.

A p camera's image is high enough quality to identify someone looking directly at the lens from across an average family room with good lighting. Real-life scenarios add another layer of complexity. What if the intruder isn’t looking directly at the camera? What if their face isn’t visible, but a small identifying characteristic is?

No specific system can capture every scene, but a higher-resolution security camera provides a slightly better chance of gathering an important detail. Increased competition has driven down the cost of p cameras comparable to p systems. An upgrade could be worth the slightly extra cost should the need arise. 

 

Best Uses

As stated earlier, p cameras are best for recording larger images for longer time periods, and real-time video streaming will be easier with p quality due to lower bandwidth requirements. Depending on the monitored area and space, you could require less cameras if you opt for higher resolution. 

Consider use cases and also what you’re trying to achieve. Bullet and dome cameras can be utilized to deter so-called porch pirates, intruders, and vandals on your property. These are also suitable for measuring employee productivity, criminal activities, and public safety analysis in commercial settings.  

Another factor is the use of high-definition thermal imaging cameras as personal protective equipment (PPE) to monitor body temperatures and curb community spread of the ongoing novel coronavirus (COVID).

Typically used in military and public safety applications, thermal imaging has evolved toward other entities for body temperature monitoring within workplaces and other public areas. 

p cameras are best for recording larger images for longer time periods, and real-time video streaming will be easier with p quality due to lower bandwidth requirements.

 

Which Camera Is Best?

If you’re unsure about camera resolution, cost, or clarity, it’s best to work with a reputable services provider, such as General Security for further guidance and assistance.

 

General Security provides residential security cameras, video surveillance, and smart technology solutions to protect your home and loved ones. Request a free, contactless quote from us today.

Sours: https://www.gensecurity.com/blog/p-vsp-security-cameras

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Our camera support multi-languages ONLY english user manual at present which we have put in box ,please review for use ! The Digital Video Camcorder is a good gift for finder-enthusiasts. This slim, sleek HD Video Camcorder is so easy to use and perfect for any age! It is designed specifically to meet your needs. LCD High Definition Video Camcorder is small, light and can fit right in your pocket. Capture life\'s most captivating moments. This digital video camera is designed with 16 mega pixels, which can bring you high definition videos or images. Adding a inches TFT screen, Support P HD video record 16 x digital zoom, \' Rotate. you can enjoy the perfect picture presented in front of you. With multiple function design of this, you can use this digital video camera as PC camera, voice and picture recorder, music player and video camcorder % Brand New and High Quality. Quantity: 1pcs Max image resolution: 16M Support 32GB SD card (Not included) P HD video record With 16 x digital zoom \'\' TFT HD screen PC Camera White LED light Color: Black and Red (Pls inform the color,otherwise we send it randomly.) Easy and Convenient to use ====================================================== Image: CMOS image sensor Storage medis: Support SD/SDHC card (max 32GB) Not included Camera lens: Fixed lens, F/, f=mm Focusing range: Normal: m to infinity; Dynamic photo :JPEG 2M, 3M, 5M, 7M, 10M, 12M, 16M Video clip :AVI HD(*),VGA, QVGA Zoom Shooting: 16X digital zoom Anti-shaking function :Electronic anti-shaking Human face detection :Support Video sound: Support Display screen: inches of TFT-LCD displayer () LED fill lamp: Less than m; recording: on/off; shooting: on/off White balance: Automatic/daylight/cloudy/tungsten lamp/fluorescent lamp EV: EV~+EV Self timing :Off, 2seconds, 5seconds, 10 seconds Computer interface: USB Television mode: NTSC/PAL Menu language :English, Deutsch, Français, Español, Chinese, Spanish, Italian, Türkçe, Pyccknn, Português, Nederlands, Japan Automatically close: Off, 60 seconds, seconds, seconds Power supply: NP V mAh lithium battery Size: *53*61 mm Weight: About ============================================= Package Content: 1 x " TFT LCD Digital Video Camcorder Camera DV 1 x AV Cable 1 x USB Cable 1 x Wall Charger (~V) 1 x NP Lithium battery 1 x Storage Bag 1 x User's Manuals

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the china international service trade fair (service trade fair) will be held in beijing from september 2nd to 7th. meanwhile, the global service trade summit will be held on september 2. president xi jinping will deliver a speech at the global service trade summit via video.

as one of the three major exhibition platforms for china's opening to the outside world, the service trade fair has become a leading event in the field of global service trade, and is a close link between china and the world. people from many countries and the media expressed that they look forward to the service trade fair that will continue to provide opportunities for all parties to deepen cooperation, build consensus, and promote global economic recovery in the post-epidemic era.

"service trade fair has become an important global platform"

this year, the service trade fair will host 5 summit forums, forum meetings and promotion and negotiation activities, as well as 8 side events. more than 10, companies from countries and regions have registered to participate in the exhibition, and the world's top and industry-leading companies accounted for 18%, an increase of 9 percentage points from the previous time. the heads of exhibitors and enterprises said that the increase in the attractiveness of the service trade fair stems from china's open cooperation environment and broad development prospects.

tang zhimin, director of the china-asean studies center of the chia university school of management in thailand, said that this year's service trade fair will cover all major areas of service trade, build a platform and provide opportunities for international service trade cooperation, and will inject impetus into the development of global service trade.

"during the service trade fair in , we participated in the winter sports special exhibition, and the response was very good." thomas tajuman, general manager of the czech ski brand alpine china market, said that many european brands have gained more cooperation opportunities through the service trade fair. . "as the beijing winter olympics approach, china's ice and snow sports market will usher in rapid growth. this is a good development opportunity for us."

zvi schiller, chairman of the israel robotics association, said that many professionals and investors are expected to participate in this service trade fair. china has a huge market and strong manufacturing capabilities, and the association is considering establishing a joint r&d center with china.

the panamanian "star" published an article that panama regards the service trade fair as an important boost to the global economic recovery in the post-epidemic era. mark garcia, senior regional consultant of lixin certified public accountants in panama business consulting company, believes that the trade in service is an excellent opportunity to promote cooperation between panama and china in the field of digital economy services. "the service trade fair can allow foreign investors to better understand china, as well as the service trade support and facilitation measures china provides, which will further enhance investors' confidence in long-term investment in china."

"china has become a major trading partner of many countries. the holding of the service trade fair not only conveys to the world china's confidence in opening up to the outside world, but also promotes trade exchanges between china and other economies and builds an important platform for exchanges and cooperation. "brazil business leaders organization china chairman everton monezi said.

wesley douglas, director of the african carbon exchange, is very pleased to see that this year's service trade will include carbon peaking and carbon neutrality as a key issue. “the service trade fair has become an important global platform, and this platform is helpful for solving global problems.” he said that china has provided an important reference for developing countries to practice green development, and african countries have a strong desire for green economic development. , there is an urgent need for related investment and technology introduction. africa and china have great potential for cooperation in these areas.

"digital technology brings hope to the future"

in his speech at the service trade conference global service trade summit, president xi jinping emphasized that it is necessary to comply with the development trend of digitalization, networking, and intelligence, and work together to eliminate the "digital divide" and promote the digitalization of service trade. the theme of this year's service trade fair is "digital opens up the future, service promotes development". visitors will experience various innovative service products and the latest technologies provided by domestic and foreign enterprises through the service trade fair. in particular, new services centered on the digital economy have received widespread attention from the international community.

yukio kajida, a professor at chuo university in japan, said that in the post-epidemic era, the importance of the digital economy has become more and more prominent. governments and enterprises of various countries are actively promoting the development of the digital economy, and china is at the forefront of this field. this year's service trade fair uses "digitalization" as a key word, which will help promote cooperation and exchanges between global companies in the new situation, and further contribute to global technological innovation, economic development and improvement of people's lives. trade in services will become an important force to promote the recovery of the world economy.

everton monezi said that china’s experience in promoting the application of electronic payment technology is worth learning from latin america. latin american countries are starting to revitalize their economies in order to achieve long-term sustainable development. the service trade fair provides a high-level platform for cooperation between latin america and china, allowing more high-quality latin american companies to enter the chinese market and contribute to the recovery of the world economy.

"digital technology brings hope to the future." susanna gutkovska, acting chief representative of the beijing office of the polish national tourism administration, said that this year's "cloud showroom" at the service trade fair provided them with the opportunity to contact and communicate with their chinese partners. an opportunity for chinese tourists to issue invitations. poland's primorsky province and warsaw tourism organization set up booths in the yunshang exhibition hall to attract visitors. the holding of the service trade fair will help the recovery of the global tourism industry.

karl fei, a professor at the business school of aalto university in finland, believes that china has accumulated a lot of experience in the development of the digital economy. for example, the government provides policy support for enterprises, revitalizes the domestic market for digital services, and supports and encourages innovative companies in this field. share and discuss these experiences with all parties at the service trade conference.

"it is of great significance to the recovery of the world economy"

according to data from the ministry of commerce of china, despite the impact of the epidemic, china's total service imports and exports in will still exceed rmb trillion. in the first half of this year, the added value of china's service industry reached trillion yuan, accounting for % of gdp, providing strong support for the high-quality development of service trade. international sources said that under the background of economic globalization, china's economy is open and inclusive, opening its doors to embrace companies from all over the world, and will contribute wisdom and strength to the deepening of global service trade and investment cooperation.

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as the guest country of this year's service and trade fair, ireland has not only set up exhibition areas for investment, food, health, education, etc., it will also show the unique charm of ireland through ethnic dance performances and movies. four institutions including the irish food board, the trade and technology board, the investment development board, and the tourism board will appear together on the stage of the service trade fair for the first time. fenbar cleary, vice president of the irish-china science and technology exchange association, said that china's total service trade imports may reach us$10 trillion in the next 15 years, which contains huge market opportunities.

mohamed farahart, director of the egyptian pyramid politics and strategic research center, said that the service and trade will build a sound framework for international cooperation, create a healthier business and investment environment, help establish a new operating structure and trade network, and promote service trade. , investment and capital flow.

lu yaoqun, director of the institute of governance and sustainable development of the national university of singapore business school, said that the service trade association is an excellent platform to promote the development of free trade and common prosperity between china, asia and the rest of the world. the service trade association once again confirmed china's long-term commitment to the idea of building a community with a shared future for mankind.

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  • ;">qiu weigong, chairman of the thai-china business council of thailand, said that trade can drive the development of various relations between the two countries. "china's national-level exhibition platforms such as the canton fair, the service trade fair, and the china international import expo will serve as a benchmark for trade, and the world economy will benefit from it."


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    tang zhimin said that open and inclusive service trade is also an important part of the regional comprehensive economic partnership agreement. china has used practical actions to create an open and inclusive environment for cooperation through the holding of service trade fairs and china international import expo. "under the current economic situation, china insists on expanding its opening up to the outside world and leading global cooperation. these measures are of great significance to the recovery of the world economy."

    hanat besek, president of the china association for the promotion of trade in kazakhstan, said that china’s opening to the outside world has evolved from the initial policy preferences to the current institutional opening, which not only benefits the chinese people, but also contributes to the economic development of neighboring countries. significant driving effect.

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    Camcorder

    Video camera with built-in video recorder

    A camcorder is an electronic device originally combining a video camera and a videocassette recorder. It is typically equipped with an articulating screen mounted on the left side, a belt to facilitate holding on the right side, hot-swappable battery facing towards the user, hot-swappable recording media, and an internally contained quiet optical zoom lens.

    The earliest camcorders were tape-based, recording analog signals onto videotape cassettes. In , digital recording became the norm, with tape replaced by storage media such as mini-HD, microDVD, internal flash memory and SD cards.[1]

    More recent devices capable of recording video are camera phones and digital cameras primarily intended for still pictures; the term "camcorder" may be used to describe a portable, self-contained device, with video capture and recording its primary function, often having advanced functions over more common cameras, such as an internal optical zoom lens that is able to operate silently with no throttled speed, whereas cameras with protracting zoom lenses commonly throttle operation speed during video recording to minimize acoustic disturbance. Additionally, dedicated units are able to operate solely on external power with no battery inserted.

    Small, black camcorder
    A Canon VIXIA HF10 camcorder; this is one of Canon's first AVCHDformat Flash Memory Full HD camcorders

    History[edit]

    Large video camera outdoors on tripod
    Prior to the camcorder, a portable recorder and camera would be required. This is a Sony SL-F1 Betamax recorder and video camera.[2]
    Sony Betamovie BMC (BMCP in PAL markets) is the first consumer camcorder. Released in for the Betamax format. It has no playback functionality and is only capable of recording.

    Video cameras originally designed for televisionbroadcast were large and heavy, mounted on special pedestals and wired to remote recorders in separate rooms. As technology improved, out-of-studio video recording was possible with compact video cameras and portable video recorders; a detachable recording unit could be carried to a shooting location. Although the camera itself was compact, the need for a separate recorder made on-location shooting a two-person job.[3] Specialized videocassette recorders were introduced by JVC (VHS) and Sony (U-matic, with Betamax) releasing a model for mobile work. Portable recorders meant that recorded video footage could be aired on the early-evening news, since it was no longer necessary to develop film.

    In , Sony released the first camcorder, the Betacam system, for professional use.[4] A key component was a single camera-recorder unit, eliminating a cable between the camera and recorder and increasing the camera operator's freedom. The Betacam used the same cassette format ( inches or centimetres tape) as the Betamax, but with a different, incompatible recording format. It became standard equipment for broadcast news.[4]

    Sony released the first consumer camcorder in , the Betamovie BMCP.[4] It used a Betamax cassette and rested on the operator's shoulder, due to a design not permitting a single-handed grip. That year, JVC released the first VHS-C camcorder.[3] Kodak announced a new camcorder format in , the 8 mm video format.[5] Sony introduced its compact 8&#;mm Video8 format in That year, Panasonic, RCA and Hitachi began producing camcorders using a full-size VHS cassette with a three-hour capacity. These shoulder-mount camcorders were used by videophiles, industrial videographers and college TV studios. Full-size Super-VHS (S-VHS) camcorders were released in , providing an inexpensive way to collect news segments or other videographies. Sony upgraded Video8, releasing the Hi8 in competition with S-VHS.

    Digital technology emerged with the Sony D1, a device which recorded uncompressed data and required a large amount of bandwidth for its time. In Ampex introduced DCT, the first digital video format with data compression using the discrete cosine transform algorithm present in most commercial digital video formats. In Sony, JVC, Panasonic and other video-camera manufacturers launched DV, which became a de facto standard for home video production, independent filmmaking and citizen journalism. That year, Ikegami introduced Editcam (the first tapeless video recording system).

    Camcorders using DVD media were popular at the turn of the 21st century due to the convenience of being able to drop a disc into the family DVD player; however, DVD capability, due to the limitations of the format, is largely limited to consumer-level equipment targeted at people who are not likely to spend any great amount of effort video editing their video footage.

    High definition (HD)[edit]

    Panasonic launched DVCPRO HD in , expanding the DV codec to support high definition (HD). The format was intended for professional camcorders, and used full-size DVCPRO cassettes. In Sony, JVC, Canon and Sharp introduced HDV as the first affordable HD video format, due to its use of inexpensive MiniDV cassettes.

    Tapeless[edit]

    Sony introduced the XDCAM tapeless video format in , introducing the Professional Disc (PFD). Panasonic followed in with its P2solid statememory cards as a recording medium for DVCPRO-HD video. In Panasonic and Sony introduced AVCHD as an inexpensive, tapeless, high-definition video format. AVCHD camcorders are produced by Sony, Panasonic, Canon, JVC and Hitachi. About this time, some consumer grade camcorders with hard disk and/or memory card recording used MOD and TOD file formats, accessible by USB from a PC.

    3D[edit]

    In , after the success of James Cameron's 3D filmAvatar, full p HD 3D camcorders entered the market. With the proliferation of file-based digital formats, the relationship between recording media and recording format has declined; video can be recorded onto different media. With tapeless formats, recording media are storage for digital files.

    TV-quality camcorder in a room
    Professional-grade digital camcorder

    In Panasonic, Sony, and JVC released consumer-grade camcorders capable of filming in 3D. Panasonic released the HDC-SDT It is a 2D camcorder which can shoot in HD; 3D is achieved by a detachable conversion lens. Sony released a 3D camcorder, the HDR-TD10, with two lenses built in for 3D filming, and can optionally shoot 2D video. Panasonic has also released 2D camcorders with an optional 3D conversion lens. The HDC-SD90, HDC-SD, HDC-TM and HDC-HS are sold as "3D-ready": 2D camcorders, with optional 3D capability at a later date. JVC also released a twin-lens camcorder in , JVC Everio GS-TD1.[6]

    4K Ultra HD[edit]

    In CES (January) , Sony announced the first consumer/low-end professional ("prosumer") camcorder Sony FDR-AX with a 1" MP sensor able to shoot 4K video in x pixels 30fps or 24fps in the XAVC-S format; in standard HD the camcorder can also deliver 60fps. When using the traditional format AVCHD, the camcorder supports surround sound from its built-in microphone, this is however not supported in the XAVC-S format. The camera also has a 3-step ND filter switch allowing greater control of how much light can enter the camera for maintaining a shallow depth of field or giving a softer appearance to motion. For one hour video shooting in 4K the camera needs about 32 GB to accommodate a data transfer rate of 50 Mbit/s. The camera's MSRP in the US is USD $2,[7]

    In , consumer UHD (x) camcorders below USD $ became available. Sony released the FDRAX33, and Panasonic released the HC-WXK and the HC-VX[citation needed]

    In September Panasonic announced and claimed 4K Ultra HD Camcorder HC-XE as the first conventional camcorder design that can capture up to 60fps at Mbit/s or alternatively standard HD recording at up to Mbit/s in ALL-I mode with MP4, MOV and AVCHD formats all offered depending on the resolution and frame rate. With use 1/" small sensor as commonly is used by bridge cameras, the camcorder has 20x optical zoom in a compact body with dual XLR audio inputs, Internal ND filters and separate control rings for focus, iris and zoom. In HD capture, the camcorder enables in-camera downscaling of the 4K image to HD to reduce noise inherent in the smaller sensor.[8]

    As of January , the only major manufacturer to announce new consumer camcorders at CES (Consumer Electronic Show) in Las Vegas was Canon with its entry-level HD models. Panasonic only announced details regarding their Mirrorless Micro Four Thirds Digital Camera called the LUMIX GH5, capable of shooting 4K in 60p. This is the first time in decades that Panasonic and Sony haven't announced new traditional camcorders at CES, and instead carried over 's models, such as Sony's FDR-AX This is due to there being far less demand in the market for traditional camcorders as more and more consumers prefer to record video with their 4K-capable smartphones, DSLRs, and action cameras from GoPro, Xiaomi, Sony, Nikon, and many others.

    Components[edit]

    Camcorders have three major components: lens, imager and recorder. The lens gathers light, focusing it on the imager. The imager (usually a CCD or CMOS sensor; earlier models used vidicon tubes) converts incident light into an electrical signal. The recorder converts the electrical signal to video, encoding it in a storable form. The lens and imager comprise the "camera" section.

    Lens[edit]

    The lens is the first component of the light path. Camcorder optics generally have one or more of the following controls:

    In consumer units these adjustments are often automatically controlled by the camcorder, but can be adjusted manually if desired. Professional-grade units offer user control of all major optical functions.

    Imager[edit]

    The imager, often a CCD, or a photodiode array which may be an Active Pixel Sensor, converts light into an electrical signal. The camera lens projects an image onto the imager surface, exposing the photosensitive array to light. This light exposure is converted into an electrical charge. At the end of the timed exposure, the imager converts the accumulated charge into a continuous analog voltage at the imager's output terminals. After the conversion is complete, the photosites reset to start the exposure of the next video frame. In many cases the photosites (per pixel) are actually reset globally by charging to a fixed voltage, and discharged towards zero individually proportionally to the accumulated light, because it is simpler to manufacture the sensor that way.

    Most camcorders use a single imaging sensor with integrated colour filters, per pixel, to enable red, green and blue to be sensed, each on their own set of pixels. The individual pixel filters present a significant manufacturing challenge. However some camcorders, even consumer grade devices such as the JVC GZ-HD3, introduced around , are triple sensor cameras, usually CCD but could be CMOS. In this case the exact alignment of the three sensors so that the red, green and blue components of the video output are correctly aligned, is the manufacturing challenge.

    Recorder[edit]

    The recorder writes the video signal onto a recording medium, such as magnetic videotape. Since the record function involves many signal-processing steps, some distortion and noise historically appeared on the stored video; playback of the stored signal did not have the exact characteristics and detail as a live video feed. All camcorders have a recorder-controlling section, allowing the user to switch the recorder into playback mode for reviewing recorded footage, and an image-control section controlling exposure, focus and color balance.

    The image recorded need not be limited to what appeared in the viewfinder. For documenting events (as in law enforcement), the field of view overlays the time and date of the recording along the top and bottom of the image. The police car or constable badge number to which the recorder was given, the car's speed at the time of recording, compass direction and geographical coordinates may also be seen.

    Functionality[edit]

    Dedicated camcorders are usually equipped with optical image stabilization, optical zoom, stereo microphone, and touch screen.

    Additional possible features include a viewfinder (usually digital), LED lamp for illuminating in darkness, night vision which may be assisted by an infrared lamp, the ability to lock the OIS on far subjects while zoomed in (named "OIS Lock" by Panasonic), the ability to buffer footage before pressing the "record" button to avoid missing moments without having to be constantly recording (named "PRE-REC" by Panasonic), the ability to keep the lens cover open for few minutes into stand-by mode for rapid restarting, internal storage for recording when the inserted memory card's space is exhausted, and effects during video recording.[9]:p37[10][11]

    On digital camcorders, the video resolution, frame rate, and/or bit rate may be adjustable between higher quality but larger file sizes and lower quality but extended recording time on remaining storage. The image sensor may have a higher resolution than the recorded video, allowing for lossless digital zoom by cropping the area read out from the image sensor.

    Types[edit]

    Analog and digital[edit]

    This older RCA camcorder records on standard analog VHS media. Its bulk- partly due to the use of full-size VHS cassettes- makes it more suited to shoulder-mounted use, as seen here.

    Camcorders are often classified by their storage device; VHS, VHS-C, Betamax, Video8 are examples of late 20th century videotape-based camcorders which record video in analog form. Digital video camcorder formats include Digital8, MiniDV, DVD, hard disk drive, direct to disk recording and solid-state, semiconductor flash memory. While all these formats record video in digital form, Digital8, MiniDV, DVD and hard-disk drives[12] have no longer been manufactured in consumer camcorders since

    In the earliest analog camcorders the imaging device is vacuum-tube technology, in which the charge of a light-sensitive target was directly proportional to the amount of light striking it; the Vidicon is an example of such an imaging tube. Newer analog, and digital camcorders use a solid-state charge-coupled imaging device (CCD) or a CMOS imager. Both are analog detectors, using photodiodes to pass a current proportional to the light striking them. The current is then digitised before being electronically scanned and fed to the imager's output. The main difference between the two devices is how the scanning is done. In the CCD the diodes are sampled simultaneously, and the scan passes the digitised data from one register to the next. In CMOS devices, the diodes are sampled directly by the scanning logic.

    Digital video storage retains higher-quality video than analog storage, especially on the prosumer and strictly consumer levels. MiniDV storage allows full-resolution video (x for PAL, x for NTSC), unlike analog consumer-video standards. Digital video does not experience colour bleeding, jitter, or fade.

    Unlike analog formats, digital formats do not experience generation loss during dubbing; however, they are more prone to complete loss. Although digital information can theoretically be stored indefinitely without deterioration, some digital formats (like MiniDV) place tracks only about 10 micrometers apart (compared with 19–58 μm for VHS). A digital recording is more vulnerable to wrinkles or stretches in the tape which could erase data, but tracking and error-correction code on the tape compensates for most defects. On analog media, similar damage registers as "noise" in the video, leaving a deteriorated (but watchable) video. DVDs may develop DVD rot, losing large chunks of data. An analog recording may be "usable" after its storage media deteriorates severely, but[13] slight media degradation in digital recordings may trigger an "all or nothing" failure; the digital recording will be unplayable without extensive restoration.

    Recording media[edit]

    Older digital camcorders record video onto tape digitally, microdrives, hard drives, and small DVD-RAM or DVD-Rs. Newer machines since record video onto flash memory devices and internal solid-state drives in MPEG-1, MPEG-2 or MPEG-4 format.[14] Because these codecs use inter-frame compression, frame-specific editing requires frame regeneration, additional processing and may lose picture information. Codecs storing each frame individually, easing frame-specific scene editing, are common in professional use.

    Other digital consumer camcorders record in DV or HDV format on tape, transferring content over FireWire or USB to a computer where large files (for DV, 1GB for 4 to minutes in PAL/NTSC resolutions) can be edited, converted and recorded back to tape. The transfer is done in real time, so the transfer of a minute tape requires one hour to transfer and about 13GB of disk space for the raw footage (plus space for rendered files and other media).

    Tapeless[edit]

    A tapeless camcorder is a camcorder that does not use video tape for the digital recording of video productions as 20th century ones did. Tapeless camcorders record video as digital computer files onto data storage devices such as optical discs, hard disk drives and solid-state flash memory cards.[15]

    Inexpensive pocket video cameras use flash memory cards, while some more expensive camcorders use solid-state drives or SSD; similar flash technology is used on semi-pro and high-end professional video cameras for ultrafast transfer of high-definition television (HDTV) content.

    Most consumer-level tapeless camcorders use MPEG-2, MPEG-4 or its derivatives as video coding formats. They are normally capable of still-image capture to JPEG format additionally.

    Consumer-grade tapeless camcorders include a USB port to transfer video onto a computer. Professional models include other options like Serial digital interface (SDI) or HDMI. Some tapeless camcorders are equipped with a FireWire (IEEE) port to ensure compatibility with magnetic tape-based DV and HDV formats.

    Consumer market[edit]

    Since the consumer market favors ease of use, portability and price, most consumer-grade camcorders emphasize handling and automation over audio and video performance. Most devices with camcorder capability are camera phones or compact digital cameras, in which video is a secondary capability. Some pocket cameras, mobile phones and camcorders are shock-, dust- and waterproof.[16]

    The consumer camcorder was generally still very expensive throughout the early to mid 's but prices compared to the 's had halved for an entry level model and fell even further at the turn of the millennium placing them in easier reach of basic income consumers with the addition of available and more easy to obtain credit to spread payments.

    This market has followed an evolutionary path driven by miniaturization and cost reduction enabled by progress in design and manufacture. Miniaturization reduces the imager's ability to gather light; designers have balanced improvements in sensor sensitivity with size reduction, shrinking the camera imager and optics while maintaining relatively noise-free video in daylight. Indoor or dim-light shooting is generally noisy, and in such conditions artificial lighting is recommended. Mechanical controls cannot shrink below a certain size, and manual camera operation has given way to camera-controlled automation for every shooting parameter (including focus, aperture, shutter speed and color balance). The few models with manual override are menu-driven. Outputs include USB , Composite and S-Video and IEEE /FireWire (for MiniDV models).

    The high end of the consumer market emphasizes user control and advanced shooting modes. More-expensive consumer camcorders offer manual exposure control, HDMI output and external audio input, progressive-scan frame rates (24fps, 25fps, 30fps) and higher-quality lenses than basic models. To maximize low-light capability, color reproduction and frame resolution, multi-CCD/CMOS camcorders mimic the 3-element imager design of professional equipment. Field tests have shown that most consumer camcorders (regardless of price) produce noisy video in low light.

    Before the 21st century, video editing required two recorders and a desktop video workstation to control them. A typical home personal computer can hold several hours of standard-definition video, and is fast enough to edit footage without additional upgrades. Most consumer camcorders are sold with basic video editing software, so users can create their own DVDs or share edited footage online.

    Since , nearly all camcorders sold are digital. Tape-based (MiniDV/HDV) camcorders are no longer popular, since tapeless models (with an SD card or internal SSD) cost almost the same but offer greater convenience; video captured on an SD card can be transferred to a computer faster than digital tape. None of the consumer-class camcorders announced at the International Consumer Electronics Show recorded on tape.[1]

    Other devices[edit]

    Video-capture capability is not confined to camcorders. Cellphones, digital single-lens reflex and compact digicams, laptops and personal media players offer video-capture capability, but most multipurpose devices offer less video-capture functionality than an equivalent camcorder. Most lack manual adjustments, audio input, autofocus and zoom. Few capture in standard TV-video formats (p60, p60, i30), recording in either non-TV resolutions (x, x) or slower frame rates (15 or 30 fps).

    A multipurpose device used as a camcorder offers inferior handling, audio and video performance, which limits its utility for extended or adverse shooting situations. The camera phone developed video capability during the early 21st century, reducing sales of low-end camcorders.

    DSLR cameras with high-definition video were also introduced early in the 21st century. Although they still have the handling and usability deficiencies of other multipurpose devices, HDSLR video offers the shallow depth-of-field and interchangeable lenses lacking in consumer camcorders. Professional video cameras with these capabilities are more expensive than the most expensive video-capable DSLR. In video applications where the DSLR's operational deficiencies can be mitigated, DSLRs such as the Canon 5D Mark II provide depth-of-field and optical-perspective control.

    Combo-cameras combine full-feature still cameras and camcorders in a single unit. The Sanyo Xacti HD1 was the first such unit, combining the features of a megapixel still camera with a p video recorder with improved handling and utility. Canon and Sony have introduced camcorders with still-photo performance approaching that of a digicam, and Panasonic has introduced a DSLR body with video features approaching that of a camcorder. Hitachi has introduced the DZHV E/EW, with p resolution and a touch screen.

    Flip Video[edit]

    Main articles: Flip Video and Flip Video Mino

    The Flip Video was a series of tapeless camcorders introduced by Pure Digital Technologies in Slightly larger than a smartphone, the Flip Video was a basic camcorder with record, zoom, playback and browse buttons and a USB jack for uploading video. The original models recorded at a xpixel resolution; later models featured HD recording at x pixels. The Mino was a smaller Flip Video, with the same features as the standard model. The Mino was the smallest of all camcorders, slightly wider than a MiniDV cassette and smaller than most smartphones on the market. In fact the Mino was small enough to fit inside the shell of a VHS cassette. Later HD models featured larger screens. In , the Flip Video (more recently manufactured by Cisco) was discontinued.[17]

    Interchangeable lenses[edit]

    Interchangeable-lens camcorders can capture HD video with DSLR lenses and an adapter.[18]

    Built-in projector[edit]

    In , Sony launched its HDR-PJ range of HD camcorders: the HDR-PJ10, 30 and Known as Handycams, they were the first camcorders to incorporate a small image projector on the side of the unit. This feature allows a group of viewers to watch video without a television, a full-size projector or a computer. These camcorders were a huge success and Sony subsequently released further models in this range. Sony's line up comprises the HDR-PJ, HDR-PJ (entry level models), HDR-PJ (mid-range model) and the HDR-PJ (top of the range).[19] Specifications vary by model.[20]

    Uses[edit]

    Media[edit]

    Professional TV camcorder (90's era)
    Small camcorder being operated with one hand
    Operating a Panasonic VDRM70 DVD camcorder with one hand

    Camcorders are used by nearly all electronic media, from electronic-news organizations to current-affairs TV productions. In remote locations, camcorders are useful for initial video acquisition; the video is subsequently transmitted electronically to a studio or production center for broadcast. Scheduled events (such as press conferences), where a video infrastructure is readily available or can be deployed in advance, are still covered by studio-type video cameras "tethered" to production trucks.

    Home movies[edit]

    Camcorders often cover weddings, birthdays, graduations, children's growth and other personal events. The rise of the consumer camcorder during the mid- to late s led to the creation of TV shows such as America's Funniest Home Videos, which showcases homemade video footage.

    Entertainment[edit]

    Camcorders are used in the production of low-budget TV shows if the production crew does not have access to more expensive equipment. Movies have been shot entirely on consumer camcorder equipment (such as The Blair Witch Project, 28 Days Later and Paranormal Activity). Academic filmmaking programs have also switched from 16mm film to digital video in early s, due to the reduced expense and ease of editing of digital media and the increasing scarcity of film stock and equipment. Some camcorder manufacturers cater to this market; Canon and Panasonic support 24p (24 fps, progressive scan—the same frame rate as cinema film) video in some high-end models for easy film conversion.

    Education[edit]

    Schools in the developed world increasingly use digital media and digital education. Students use camcorders to record video diaries, make short films and develop multi-media projects across subject boundaries. Teacher evaluation involves a teacher's classroom lessons being recorded for review by officials, especially for questions of teacher tenure.

    Student camcorder-created material and other digital technology are used in new-teacher preparation courses. The University of Oxford Department of Education PGCE programme and NYU's Steinhardt School's Department of Teaching and Learning MAT programme are examples.

    The USC Rossier School of Education goes further, insisting that all students purchase their own camcorder (or similar) as a prerequisite to their MAT education programs (many of which are delivered online). These programs employ a modified version of Adobe Connect to deliver the courses. Recordings of MAT student work are posted on USC's web portal for evaluation by faculty as if they were present in class. Camcorders have allowed USC to decentralize its teacher preparation from Southern California to most American states and abroad; this has increased the number of teachers it can train.

    Formats[edit]

    The following list covers consumer equipment only (for other formats, see videotape):

    Analog[edit]

    Older black camcorder
    Lo-Band: Approximately 3 MHz bandwidth ( lines EIA resolution, or ~x edge-to-edge)
    • BCE (): First tape storage for video, manufactured by Bing Crosby Entertainment from Ampex equipment
    • BCE Color (): First color tape storage for video, manufactured by Bing Crosby Entertainment from Ampex equipment
    • Simplex (): Developed commercially by RCA and used to record live broadcasts by NBC
    • Quadruplex videotape (): Developed formally by Ampex, this was the recording standard for 20 years.
    • Vision electronic recording apparatus (Vera) (): An experimental recording standard developed by the BBC, it was never used or sold commercially.
    • U-matic (): Tape originally used by Sony to record video
    • U-matic S (): A smaller version of U-matic, used for portable recorders
    • Betamax (): Used on old Sony and Sanyo camcorders and portables; obsolete by the late s in the consumer market
    • VHS (): Compatible with VHS VCRs; no longer manufactured
    • VHS-C (): Originally designed for portable VCRs, this standard was later adapted for compact consumer camcorders; identical in quality to VHS; cassettes play in VHS VCRs with an adapter. Still available in the low-end consumer market. Relatively short running time compared to other formats.
    • Video8 (): Small-format tape developed by Sony to compete with VHS-C's palm-sized design; equivalent to VHS or Betamax in picture quality
    Hi-Band: Approximately 5 MHz bandwidth ( lines EIA resolution, or ~ x edge-to-edge)
    • U-matic BVU (): Largely used in high-end consumer and professional equipment
    • U-matic BVU-SP (): Largely used in high-end consumer and professional equipment
    • S-VHS (): Largely used in mid-range consumer and prosumer equipment
    • S-VHS-C (): Limited to low-end consumer market
    • Hi8 (): Used in low to mid-range consumer equipment but also was available as prosumer/industrial equipment

    Digital[edit]

    Various-sized videotapes with camcorder
    Sony Handycam DCR-IP7BT MICROMV camcorder and Sony MICROMV tape (top), compared with MiniDV and Hi8 tapes
    • DV (): Initially developed by Sony, the DV standard became the most widespread standard-definition digital camcorder technology for the next decade. The DV format was the first to make capturing footage for video editing possible without special hardware, using the 4- or 6-pin FireWire sockets common on computers at the time.[21]
    • DVCPRO (): Panasonic released its own variant of the DV format for broadcast news-gathering.
    • DVCAM (): Sony's answer to the DVCPRO
    • DVD recordable (): A variety of recordable optical disc standards were released by multiple manufacturers during the s and s, of which DVD-RAM was the first. The most common in camcorders was MiniDVD-R, which used recordable 8&#;cm discs holding 30 minutes of MPEG video.
    • D-VHS (): JVC's VHS tape supporting p/i HD; many units also supported IEEE recording.
    • Digital8 (): Uses Hi8 tapes; most can read older Video8 and Hi8 analog tapes.
    • MICROMV (): Matchbox-sized cassette. Sony was the only electronics manufacturer for this format, and editing software was proprietary to Sony and only available on Microsoft Windows; however, open source programmers did manage to create capture software for Linux.[22]
    • Blu-ray Disc (): Manufactured by Hitachi
    • HDV (): Records up to an hour of HDTV MPEG-2 signal on a MiniDV cassette
    • MPEG-2 codec-based format: Records MPEG-2 program stream or MPEG-2 transport stream to various kinds of tapeless standard and HD media (hard disks, solid-state memory, etc.).
    • H Compressed video using the H codec in an MPEG-4 file; usually stored in tapeless media
    • AVCHD: Puts H video into a transport-stream file format; compressed in H format (not MPEG-4)
    • Multiview Video Coding: Amendment to H/MPEG-4 AVC video compression for sequences captured from multiple cameras using a single video stream; backwards-compatible with H

    Operating systems[edit]

    Since most manufacturers focus their support on Windows and Mac users, users of other operating systems have difficulty finding support for their devices. However, open-source products such as Kdenlive, Cinelerra and Kino (written for the Linux operating system) allow editing of most popular digital formats on alternative operating systems and can be used in conjunction with OBS for online broadcast solutions; software to edit DV streams is available on most platforms.

    Digital forensics[edit]

    The issue of digital-camcorder forensics to recover data (e.g. video files with timestamps) has been addressed.[23]

    Recalls[edit]

    In , Sony recalled an estimated Sony Handycams after the NightShot feature was found to be able to see under peoples clothes, creating a risk for accidental pornographic recording.[24]

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

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    External links[edit]

    Wikimedia Commons has media related to Camcorders.
    Look up camcorder in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
    Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camcorder


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