Cummins B Series engine
Motor vehicle engine
|Cummins B Series engine|
6.7 Euro 4 / 4+
|Configuration||Inline-4 and Inline-6|
|Displacement||3.922 cc (L4) |
5.883 cc (L6)6.690 cc (L6)
|Block material||Cast iron|
|Head material||Cast iron|
|Valvetrain||Cam-in-block 2 or 4 valves x cyl.|
|Compression ratio||17.2:1, 17.3:1, 17.5:1|
|Turbocharger||Holset Engineering (variable)|
|Fuel system||Common rail High pressure Direct injection, symmetrical combustion chamber with 7-hole injectors|
|Management||Bosch Mechanical with electronic advance|
|Oil system||Wet sump|
|Power output||215–420 hp (160–313 kW)|
|Torque output||440–1,075 lb⋅ft (597–1,458 N⋅m)|
|Dry weight||1,100 lb (499 kg)|
|Emissions control technology||Electric fuel control, DPF and EGR|
The Cummins B Series is a family of diesel engines produced by American manufacturer Cummins. In production since 1984, the B series engine family is intended for multiple applications on and off-highway, light-duty, and medium-duty. In the automotive industry, it is best known for its use in school buses, public service buses (most commonly the Dennis Dart) in the United Kingdom, and Dodge/Ram pickup trucks.
Since its introduction, three generations of the B series engine have been produced, offered in both inline-four and inline-six configurations in multiple displacements.
General engine features
The B-series features engine bores machined directly into the block (rather than the wet liners used on earlier Cummins engines). It was also set apart by the use of a shallow one-piece head, requiring closer tolerances than in other Cummins products. The engine was first manufactured in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, and other plants were later added in Mexico, Turkey, and Darlington, UK.
Every Cummins powered Dodge Pickup (since initial production in 1989) has come equipped with a turbocharger. It uses a gear-drive camshaft for extra reliability. Also specified is a deep-skirt engine block and extra-strong connecting rods. A Holsetturbocharger is used. The original B Series was updated with 24 valves and an electronic engine management system to become the ISB in 1998.
|Name||Displacement||Cylinders||Fuel||Years of production|
|ISB||4.0L or 5.9L||4 or 6|
|B Gas Plus||Natural Gas|
The 4.0L/4BT Cummins is an engine in the same family as the 5,883 cc (5.9 L; 359.0 cu in) Cummins diesels. The 4.0L/4B is an inline four-cylinder naturally aspirated or turbodiesel that was popular for many step van applications, including bread vans and other commercial vehicles. Additionally it has seen broad usage in agricultural equipment. It has also gained popularity as an engine swap into smaller trucks. The lowest powered 4B produces 53 hp (40 kW).
|5.9-liter B series Cummins |
The 5,883 cc (5.9 L; 359.0 cu in) 6BT, also known as the "12-valve" Cummins was the first member of the "B" engine family to be used in a light truck vehicle. The 6BT used Bosch fuel systems, injector, and VE rotary pump and P7100 inline injection pumps. Some early 6BTs were supplied with CAV rotary pumps instead, before the Bosch system became the sole standard. This engine started life in 1984 designed as an agricultural engine, for use in Case agricultural equipment.[full citation needed] After 1989, the 6BT engine was used in light duty, medium duty and select heavy duty trucks and buses. The 6BT engine has recently become very popular for use in repowering various vehicles, in the UK they have proven very popular in the Land Rover community, commonly known as the ‘good’ conversion.
Appearing in the 1989–1998 Dodge Ram pickup truck, it became a popular alternative to the large gasoline V8 engines normally used in full-size pickup trucks, since it produced the torque at low engine speeds, and significantly better fuel mileage. During that time, the Dodge Ram was the only diesel pickup that did not rely on glowplugs for cold weather starting.
|5.9-liter ISB Cummins |
The 5.9 L; 359.0 cu in (5,883 cc) ISB (Interact System B) is one of the largeststraight-six engines used for light truck vehicles and school buses, and the improved high output 600 version was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2004.
One unusual feature of the ISB is that it is a multi-valvepushrod engine design, with 4 valves per cylinder (popularly referred to as the "24-valve" Cummins). The engine displaces 5.9 L; 359.0 cu in (5,883 cc), with a 102 mm × 120 mm (4.02 in × 4.72 in) cylinder bore and piston stroke. A turbocharger is used to increase the output in the high-compression (17.2:1 in recent versions) diesel. It is an all-iron engine with forged steel connecting rods, an assembled camshaft, and a cast aluminum intake manifold. The engine is produced in Columbus, Indiana.
The ISB uses electronically controlled Bosch fuel systems, unlike the 6BT systems which were mechanical. Early ISB engines utilize Bosch injectors and a Bosch VP44 high pressure pump. Later ISB designs have common rail fuel injection, Bosch injectors, and a Bosch CP3 high pressure pump.
The 5.9 L; 359.0 cu in (5,883 cc) QSB (Quantum System B) is the off-road, heavy duty version of the ISB. Typically used in marine, agricultural, and construction applications, these engines share many of the same parts as the ISB and utilize the same Bosch fuel system.
Dodge Ram ISB
Midway through model year 1998, the Dodge Ram switched from the 6BT to the ISB to meet updated emissions requirements. Like other ISB's, these engines started out using the Bosch VP44 rotary injection pump. The VP44 setup meant that timing and fuel could be precisely controlled, which led to cleaner emissions. However, VP44 failure rates were higher than the older P7100 injection pump. The compression ratio in these engines was 17.2:1. The 1998–2000 ISB was rated at 215 hp (160 kW; 218 PS) and 420 lb⋅ft (569 N⋅m) when equipped with the 47REautomatic transmission. The 1998–2000 ISB was rated at 235 hp (175 kW; 238 PS) and 460 lb⋅ft (624 N⋅m) when equipped with a manual transmission. For the 2001-2002 years, a standard output and a high output ISB Cummins engine were offered. The standard output, which was the same as the previous engines was rated to 235 hp (175 kW; 238 PS) and 460 lb⋅ft (624 N⋅m) when equipped with either a manual transmission or automatic. The high output ISB was rated at 245 hp (183 kW; 248 PS) and 505 lb⋅ft (685 N⋅m), with only a NV5600 six-speed manual transmission available. The high output engine was different in a few ways from the standard output engine; it had higher compression (17.3:1), powdered metal valve seat inserts, a larger flywheel, the Bosch fuel system was reworked to allow higher fuel flows, and fuel-injection timing was altered.
Dodge Ram ISB CR
For the 2003 model year, the Cummins was introduced with Bosch high pressure common rail fuel injection, again increasing power output. On automatic equipped vehicles, the 47RE was upgraded internally to increase durability and torque capacity, now known as the 48RE. The 2003 rating for the Dodge truck was released at 305 hp (227 kW; 309 PS) and 555 lb⋅ft (752 N⋅m). Midway through the 2004 model year, the Cummins 600 was introduced, producing 325 hp (242 kW; 330 PS) at 2,900 rpm and 600 lb⋅ft (813 N⋅m) at 1,600 rpm. This engine was noticeably quieter than the previous engines.[non-primary source needed]
|6.7-liter ISB Cummins |
The B6.7 is the latest version of the B Series. It is currently the largest straight-six engine produced for a light duty truck or school bus. It produces 350 hp (261 kW; 355 PS) and 650 lb⋅ft (881 N⋅m) in the 2007.5 and newer Dodge 2500/3500 pickup trucks with the Chrysler-built six-speed 68RFEautomatic transmission built at the Kokomo Transmission plant in Kokomo, Indiana. Engine torque is slightly reduced with the Mercedes G56 6-speed manual transmission at 350 hp (261 kW; 355 PS) and 610 lb⋅ft (827 N⋅m). The 2007 and newer 3500 Cab & Chassis trucks only get the 305 hp (227 kW; 309 PS) and 610 lb⋅ft (827 N⋅m) version of the B6.7, whether it has the Aisin AS68RC or the Mercedes G56 6-speed manual transmission. As for the 2008 4500/5500 medium duty Chassis Cabs or the Sterling Bullet Trucks, they receive the 350 hp (261 kW; 355 PS) and 610 lb⋅ft (827 N⋅m) version of the B6.7, whether it has the Aisin AS68RC or the Mercedes G56 6-speed manual transmission. Late model 2011 Ram trucks produce 350 hp (261 kW; 355 PS) and 800 lb⋅ft (1,085 N⋅m), with the exhaust brake rating boosted from 150 hp (112 kW; 152 PS) to 222 hp (166 kW; 225 PS).
For 2020 this engine has been updated to produce 400hp and 1000 ft-lb torque.
It is also used in the Blue Bird Vision, Thomas Saf-T-Liner C2, and IC CE school buses
Changes over the 5.9
There are many changes over the previous B5.9 for the Dodge truck, the most obvious being the larger displacement. The B6.7 had an increase of cylinder bore and piston stroke to 107 mm × 124 mm (4.21 in × 4.88 in), respectively, thereby giving a displacement of 6.7 L; 408.2 cu in (6,690 cc).[full citation needed]
With the 6.7 L Cummins Engine came the introduction of the Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT). The VGT Turbocharger was introduced to reduce turbo lag by adjusting the vanes by sliding a steel ring in the exhaust housing dependent on engine RPM creating more or less pressure inside the exhaust housing and controlling the speed of the turbocharger. It also works as an integrated exhaust brake system and is all controlled by an electronic actuator on the turbocharger. This VGT system has been an extremely common issue with the 6.7L Cummins platform and is typically diagnosed by the loss of the trucks exhaust brake.
The two-thirds version of the ISB is the 4-cylinder 4.5-liter at 185 hp (138 kW), used in the New Routemaster, a serieshybrid diesel-electric doubledecker bus in London.
Mechanical Injection with Mechanical Timing
In the earlier models of the Cummins B Series Engine, it was almost entirely mechanical including its fuel system. The fuel pump used in these engines was the P7100 injection pump, this pump is driven off the camshaft gear and drives it own internal camshaft to inject fuel to the individual injectors. This pump itself was one of the most popular options for fueling for the B Series Engines because of this simplistic design and how reliable it was. The P7100 injection pump also allows for large amounts of fuel to be delivered into the system with simple tweaking to the system to allow for larger injection events.
Mechanical Injection with Electronic Timing
In the later models of B Series Engine, the fuel system was switched from mechanical injection and timing to mechanical injection with electronic timing. This was all thanks to Bosch's new VP44 injection pump. The VP44 injection pump is driven at half the camshaft speed and produces fuel pressure at about 4,500 psi to pop the vertically centered injectors in the engine. These injection pumps need to have constant fuel pressure behind them of at least 10psi at all times to maintain the priming of the system. If you run these pumps dry it can cause your pump to fail quickly. The VP44 injection pumps were the first pumps placed in the Cummins engine to have an FPCM. FPCM stands for the fuel pressure control module, and this is responsible for maintaining and controlling the fuel pressure of the system. However, even though this new technology to control fuel pressure was convenient, it had a major downfall. The problem was them was that they were unable to be serviced without replacing the entire fuel pump. Another important piece of the puzzle that is responsible for the longevity and functionality of the VP44 was the fuel transfer pump mounted on the side of the block next to the ECM. This electronically driven vane pump is what supplies that minimum of 10psi to the injection pump so it maintains constant fuel pressure as well, as cools itself, and lubricates itself. 
Mechanical Injection with Electronic Timing and Common Rail Pressurization
The most recent method of fuel injection that is still in use today is called common rail injection. Common rail injection is a completely revolutionary design to fuel injection since a fuel pump is now used to pressurize a rail and then from there sends the fuel to each injector. A major benefit of switching over to this fueling system was how it allowed for much less leakage into the cylinders pre and post ignition. This is all possible since this fuel system operated upwards of 2600 bar so they are able to set spring tension higher in each injector to allow for more precise fuel injection and timing. Another benefit of using common rail injection and having one rail pressurized compared to pressurizing each individual injector is that it is more reliable since it allows for more consistent fuel delivery to each injector.
When you think of an engine that must withstand the utmost of abuse, your brain likely goes to something built for a Le Mans team. While there is no denying the feat of engineering that is a modern racing engine, they don’t really compare to a military powertrain like the Cummins’ Advanced Combat Engine. This four-cylinder diesel features one of the funkiest designs we’ve seen, and manages to produce 1,000 horsepower.
The Cummins’ Advanced Combat Engine is the result of a $47.4 million government contract from 2017 and a whole lot of trick engineering. The 14.3L diesel engine is unlike any found in a production vehicle, and not just because of its enormous 873 cubic-inch displacement. It features no valve train, and a two-cycle operation rather than the more normal four-stroke we’re familiar with. It also uses an opposed-piston flat-layout, with eight pistons despite its cylinder count. Each bank of the motor has its own crankshaft, with pistons coming together with each stroke to build compression. Oh, and it happens to be twin-charged.
A gear-driven supercharger helps to feed air into the two-cycle engine, as does a pair of Holset HE500 variable geometry turbos. The engine may be massive, but it can easily deliver 1,000 horsepower at 2,600 RPM without breaking a sweat. This is because of the engines unique layout, which aids in managing heat and allowing for greater efficiency in a military application.
The Cummins’ ACE is actually somewhat compact for its displacement, as it was designed for use in the cramped M88 Hercules recovery tank. While we’re certain it won’t find its way to a Ram Truck anytime soon, Cummins has confirmed that the platform is modular, and could be adapted for use in Class 8 commercial vehicles. A 10.6L three-cylinder, and a larger six-cylinder engine have both been discussed.
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Four cylinders, eight pistons and no valves: Meet Cummins’ new 1000hp tank engine
A new opposed-piston diesel engine design yields more power and better efficiency from a smaller displacement, and is coming soon to a tank near you.
There’s a new breed of engine coming for the USA's armed forces, and it could pave the way for more powerful and efficient engines in broader applications.
It's called the Advanced Combat Engine (ACE). A co-development of Cummins and Achates Power, it’s radically different to a typical diesel engine that we all know. It’s the result of a $US47.4 million contract, aimed at producing the next generation of engine for military use.
Instead of having six or eight pistons all in separate cylinders, all in a row or V turning a common crankshaft, this new engine design places two pistons in each cylinder. These pistons work opposite of each other, sharing the same air/fuel mixture and resulting combustion.
Horizontally-opposed, each side of pistons turns it’s own crankshaft. These crankshafts are connected via gearsets, which then turns a single output shaft.
Opposed-piston engines aren’t a new idea. Some might remember the ‘Commer Knocker’ from the 1950s and 1960s, and know of Junkers airplanes in the 1920s and 1930s. However this new design brings an old idea into the modern world, capable of improved power, efficiency and emissions.
Four cylinders in this diesel engines make up 14.3 litres of overall capacity, with peak power of 1000 horsepower (745kW) at 2600rpm. This number is no doubt helped along by two turbochargers and a gear-driven supercharger. Yes, twin-charged, like an old Volkswagen 1.4TSI.
The engine will be modular for larger and smaller applications, with a four-litre version making 223kW mentioned. Go bigger, with a 20-litre, 12-piston unit, making 1118kW.
This new engine will be coupled to a more efficient transmission in tank applications, which can be up to 90 per cent efficient in terms of power loss. John Tasdemir, from the US Army Ground Vehicle Systems Centre, told National Defence Magazine that some tank transmissions can be as bad as 55 per cent.
Nope. In fact, because of the opposed-piston layout, this engine has no cylinder head whatsoever. Instead, it uses a two-stroke combustion cycle, like your backyard whipper snipper. That means fuel and air is ingested, combusted and expelled in two strokes of the piston, in half the time of a more common four-stroke engine.
Instead of using things like camshafts, valves and lifters to control gas flow and compression, combustion gasses are moved into and out of the cylinder via ports placed strategically on cylinder walls. As the pistons move up and down during operation, these ports effectively open and close. Incoming air pushes out exhaust gasses, and fuel is then injected directing into the combustion chamber as the pistons close in on each other.
Once again, two-stroke diesel engines aren’t a new design. Companies like Detroit had great success with large and powerful two-stroke diesel engines in large trucks for many years. While powerful, old Detroit diesels were never considered leaders of efficiency and emissions.
This new combat engine will include a hybrid powertrain of sorts, with an integrated starter generator that sits in between the engine and transmission. It’s quoted at having as much as 160kW available, and will be able to fuel a 600-volt auxiliary power system with lithium-ion batteries.
These new generation batteries are touted to offer twice the power density at a quarter of the weight, and can last as much as ten times longer than a lead acid battery.This development is interesting, as it follows in the same vein of mass electrification of passenger and commercial vehicles for road use.
Such a system has more potential in the future for military vehicles, like an EV mode for silent operation: Tasdemir explains:
“Our next set of programs are focused on electrification of combat vehicles, including hybrid systems that can offer silent mobility and these long periods of silent watch,” he said. “The better storage we have, the longer mobility we can get or the longer silent watch. So it’s certainly a stepping stone to that capability.”
This new-generation opposed-piston engine has roughly 25 per cent better fuel efficiency and heat rejection, compared to a typical diesel engine. This is because of better thermal efficiency from two pistons and no cylinder head, which also allows for a better combustion 'chamber' design.
This opposed-piston design effectively gives the engine more power density, meaning it develops more power for the given size, weight and capacity. In comparison, Cummins’ own B903 engine is a 14.8 litre 90-degree V8, which makes a maximum of 750 horsepower when twin-turbocharged.
The ACE engine is more compact and box-shaped, lending itself to a more compact overall packaging compared to a V or inline, especially in terms of overall height. This means new, clean-sheet platforms will be designed around this more powerful and compact engine, with scope for extra space, maneuverability, capability or armour.
This ACE engine is slated for use in the Bradley Fighting Vehicle and M88 armoured vehicle so far, although smaller and larger iterations could be used in a variety of different applications. Achates Power is also developing a 2.7-litre variant of the engine for non-military use, which has been fitted to a test Ford F-150. This size makes 201kW and 650Nm, and is touted to be more efficient than what is typically used.
There is also a 10.6 litre variant being developed for trucks, which has earned Achates Power a USD$9 million grant, making 335kW and 2,372Nm. Along with that huge amount of torque, Achates Power claims a 15 per cent reduction in CO2 and 90 per cent reduction in NOx.
Sam Purcell has been writing about cars, four-wheel driving and camping since 2013, and obsessed with anything that goes brum-brum longer than he can remember. Sam joined the team at CarAdvice/Drive as the off-road Editor in 2018, after cutting his teeth at Unsealed 4X4 and Pat Callinan’s 4X4 Adventures.Read more about Sam Purcell
The project has been assessed by CALSTART, who research emissions standards testing in California and confirmed to be able to meet the 0.02 grams per brake horsepower hour limit for ultra-low NOx. In fact, CALSTART Executive Vice President Bill Van Amburg has been quoted as saying it's “the cleanest combustion, lowest carbon combustion engine in the world."
Achates Power's Chief Technical Officer Fabien Redon also says it could actually get cleaner. The engine, because of the way it's designed, could be used for gasoline, natural gas, or even hydrogen combustion as well as diesel. “You can imagine an engine burning hydrogen basically without any after-treatment system requirement and without any actual emissions coming out of the tailpipe."
Redon said there was a potential advantage over fuel-cell hydrogen use because combustion needs less high-grade hydrogen: "Another interesting aspect of an internal combustion engine burning hydrogen is that it doesn’t require a very high purity of hydrogen, which opens up the door for low cost hydrogen and different sources of hydrogen as well."
It should be noted that hydrogen combustion engines do produce NOx as a side effect, although it can be made very minimal with technologies like air recirculation.
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Cummins 3 cylinder
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