Power shield canceling (PSC) is an advancedtechnique in Super Smash Bros. Melee, Super Smash Bros. Brawl and Super Smash Bros. 4, which allows a player to cancel their shield drop animation with an attack after performing a power shield. This gives the player the ability to use any attack right after they power shield an attack, as opposed to having to wait for the shield drop animation to end (which is what the player has to do if they do not power shield an attack). While the technique was introduced in Melee, it was first discovered in Brawl.
How to perform
In order to power shield cancel, the player first has to power shield an attack (specifically, an attack which is not a projectile). Once they have power shielded an attack, they then need to let go of the shield button and wait for their character to drop their shield. The player can then perform any ground move. In Melee, the player can input an attack on frame 2 of a shield drop while in Brawl and Smash 4, they can input an attack on frame 1 of the shield drop however, a forward smash and down smash can still only be performed from frame 2 and they are more difficult to perform, as mistiming them will result in a roll or spot dodge.
While difficult to perform (due to the tight timing on the power shield and the varied amount of time a player can drop shield depending on the amount of shieldstun they suffer from), power shield canceling is a very useful technique as it can allow for:
- A move to be punished where it would otherwise be safe without a power shield cancel.
- A move which can be punished with a stronger punish than what would otherwise normally be possible.
As an example of this, if Zelda is hit by a move which is -5 on shield (meaning that she can act five frames before her opponent can) and she shields it normally, she has no way to punish the move, as all of her OoS options are too slow, so her opponent can avoid any punish she attempts. If she power shields the move however, she can perform a power shield cancelled down smash, which will come out quickly enough to punish the move before her opponent can act.
As a result, this is one of the main reasons why power shielding is so effective (along with it negating shield damage and having reduced shield pushback (as of Brawl)), as it allows for moves to be punished in situations where they would otherwise be safe.
Notably, Yoshi is incapable of power shield canceling in Melee and Brawl, which particularly crippled him in Brawl as even when he powershielded an attack, his fastest punish was still his frame 17 grab (due to his long shield drop animation and his inability to jump OoS) and unlike in Melee, he does not have reduced shieldstun or the ability to parry in order to compensate. This was fixed in Smash 4, as Yoshi gained the ability to power shield cancel much like any other character.
Differences between games
In Super Smash Bros. Melee, power shield canceling was easier to perform, as the game has a four frame power shield cancel window (against non-projectile attacks) and shield drop animations were 15 frames long across the board. This made power shield canceling highly effective in Melee as it meant that shield dropping after a power shield was a viable and effective option to punish attacks, which is not the case with regular shielding. A downside with power shielding however is that it has increased shield pushback, which means that power shield canceling may not always be useful, particularly against spaced moves.
In Super Smash Bros. Brawl, the technique became harder and less vital, as the power shield window was reduced to three frames and shield drop animations were reduced to seven frames. Despite this, power shield canceling is still a very useful technique and power shielding received an addition benefit, as it now removes almost all shield pushback. In conjunction with Brawl's reduced shieldstun, power shield canceling can be used to punish more attacks and it is now a much more effective way to to punish multi-hit attacks. It is notably a very useful technique to deal with Meta Knight's Mach Tornado, as the player can punish the move, as opposed to having to sit and shield and watch the move drain their shield down/shield poke them.
In Super Smash Bros. 4, the technique was initially extremely similar to Brawl, with the exception that the power shield window was increased from three frames to four. As of update 1.1.1 however, its window was reverted from four frames to three, making it more difficult to perform. In return, power shielding decreases shieldstun by 0.66×, compensating for the increased shieldstun in said update. This also means that power shielding now had lower shieldstun than regular shielding, giving power shielding opponents a greater frame advantage when shielding attacks, further increasing the reward of power shield canceling relative to shielding a move regularly.
With the lack of power shielding in Smash 64, power shield canceling was naturally not possible at all and it is no longer present in Super Smash Bros. Ultimate, due to the drastic change in how perfect shields function (although perfect shielding in Ultimate still allows the player to instantly use any of their attacks without going through the shield drop animation).
A perfect shield (ジャストシールド, Just shield) (officially called the Power Shield in Melee) is a technique where one activates a full shield such that it connects with an incoming attack on the first few frames. In order for the technique to be executed, one must rely on timing and skill. When the opponent is ready to strike, the player must quickly use the shield. If done correctly, the character takes no shield damage (or shieldstun if a projectile was powershielded) and may immediately perform a counterattack while the attacker is stuck in hitlag. The powershield technique in Melee, Brawl, Smash 4 and Ultimate is comparable to a parry in traditional fighting games, as it results in little to no knockback and freezes the opponent for a couple frames.
Perfect shielding up until Smash 4 is done by quickly and fully depressing a shield button four frames before an attack connects. If done correctly, there will be a significant flash on the shield and a distinctive "chlink" sound (with the exception of Smash 4, where a softer sound plays instead). Because it is technically a shield, it is ineffective against grabs and unblockable attacks. In Melee, powershielding can reflectprojectiles during the first two frames, although they deal half their usual damage (unlike other reflectors, which increase their damage), and Poké Balls reflected this way retain the ownership of the character that threw them. In Brawl and Smash 4, perfect shielding merely redirects projectiles at an angle without changing their ownership.
In Ultimate the method has been reversed: after a shield has already been raised, perfect shielding is done by releasing the shield button immediately before an attack connects. If performed correctly, the defending character flashes, and both characters (if the attacking character uses a melee attack) enter hitlag, but the defending character is still able to recover much quicker for a counterattack.
CPU players, especially at level 9, use this technique a lot to reflect projectiles in Melee, and against any oncoming attack since Brawl. It is not used often by human players due to the reaction times and precision usually required, and as such, it often comes as a surprise and can momentarily disrupt a match. However, it has been made easier to take advantage of in Brawl onwards than in Melee due to the ability to drop one's shield faster. At high level play, powershielding in Melee can be used to reflect a wave of incoming projectiles such as Falco's laser, to punish camping.
In Super Smash Bros. Melee
In Melee, the technique is known as power shielding (named for the Power Shielder bonus attained by using the technique multiple times). Power shielding is accomplished by fully pressing L or R such that the shield appears just before the incoming attack hits the player. More specifically, the full shield bubble's inner reflection hitbox must connect with the hitbox of the incoming attack within 4 frames of activating the shield. The noise heard by doing this is rather quiet compared to Brawl's, and should a projectile hit on frames 1 or 2 of the powershield, the technique will reflect projectiles at half the original damage. Though the technique is difficult to perform consistently, powershielding is extremely valuable in competitive play, as it allows players to punish moves with low ending lag such as Fox's neutral aerial. Its ability to reflect projectiles is even more valuable as it allows players to punish otherwise safe, predictable projectile spam, particularly in the Falco matchup, whose lasers can shut off many options and leave a player completely helpless if not dealt with properly.
Though extremely difficult, powershielding projectiles is still humanly possible to perform consistently. Players who use characters with projectiles often have an easily trackable firing pattern, such as firing projectiles only when there is a certain distance between the players. It is also important to note that players (again, Falco mains in particular) will short hop to move while firing. As such, a projectile user running or jumping away from pressure is often a surefire sign they intend to fire. If the projectile is thin like Falco's laser, another thing a player can do to ease the risk and timing needed to powershield is to crouch and wait for the projectile to pass over the character. Shielding while the projectile is directly over the character will ensure a powershielded projectile.
Powershield follow-up is also distance dependent. A laser is considered safe if fired when Falco and his opponent are standing a distance X between each other, where X is the max horizontal distance Falco can jump in 1 short hop. At this distance, powershielding the lasers yield no follow ups and attempting to move around them by jumping, rolling, or going under them with attacks that lower hurtboxes (like Marth's dash attack) put the opponent in positions Falco has an easier time winning neutral in. However, if the laser is fired too far away, for example at distance 1.5X, the laser is not safe, as powershielding does yield follow-ups such as a grab.
Due to quirks in Yoshi's shield, Yoshi sometimes powershields attacks even when the shield is already up. This however only works against melee attacks, not projectiles.
Chronological frame data
By pressing L or R during an actionable grounded frame, the Guard animation will be triggered immediately. The ability to powershield with it depends on whether the button press was digital or analog:
GuardReflect is triggered. Reflecting projectiles is possible during the first two frames. During the first four frames, physical attacks will enable the subsequent cancellation of the GuardOff animation. Both are only possible if the incoming hitbox also overlaps the inner powershield sphere on the first frame of its collision with the shield.
- 1.1 If a projectile collides with the powershield sphere during the first two frames, it will get reflected. This has no effect whatsoever on the GuardReflect animation – it will play on just as if nothing had hit the character or his shield. Thus, physical powershields are still possible after a projectile has been powershielded.
- 1.2 If a physical hitbox collides with the powershield sphere during GuardReflect 1-4, the powershield sound and graphical effects are played and the GuardOff cancellation is stored.
- 1.2.1 If the first physical powershield was triggered before the 4th shield frame, subsequent hits up until the 4th shield frame will trigger the sound and graphical powershield effects once more. This does not provide an additional benefit, though.
- 1.2.2 If GuardDamage (the animation usually referred to as shieldstun) is interrupted by another hitbox colliding with the shield, the shielding character undergoes shield hitlag and subsequent shieldstun once more. This does not affect the eventual ability to interrupt GuardOff, even if the shielding character get hits by many attacks while in shield and experiences very long shieldstun.
- 1.2.3 As soon as GuardDamage is over, the character will enter his indefinite Guard animation if he still holds down a shoulder button. If he doesn't keep L, R or Z pressed, he will enter the GuardOff animation.
- 220.127.116.11 If the character immediately transitioned from GuardDamage to GuardOffor didn't spend more than 3 frames in the Guard animation before dropping his shield, the possibility to cancel GuardOff will still be available. GuardOff has a total animation length of 15 frames and can be interrupted by any action that can be triggered with the buttons A, B, X, Y and Z as well as with the C-stick. Additionally, grabbing with (L∨R)∧A, jumping with ↑ and spot dodging with ↓ on the control stick are possible.
- 1.3 If a projectile connects with the powershield sphere during GuardReflect 3-4, the next incoming physical attack will be powershielded. (Details still left to figure out.)
GuardOn is triggered. This animation has no powershield sphere, but the shield sphere is active from the first frame on as well. It can be transitioned to GuardReflect by a digital shoulder button press only on frame one and only if no hitbox collided with the shield on this first frame.
- 2.1 If a digital press occurs before GuardOn 2, the GuardReflect animation will deviate from its normal behavior. During its first two frames, only projectiles are shielded (and reflected). Physical attacks hit the character just as if he wasn’t shielding at all. On GuardReflect 3-4, both the normal shield sphere and the powershield sphere are active.
Example of multi-hit attacks that still preserve the physical powershield benefit
Fox stands in front of Marth and does a SHFFL down aerial:
- AttackAirLw 5: First active frame of Fox's dair. On this frame, Marth presses R digitally and immediately triggers a powershield. This frame is then repeated three times ("hitlag") during which Marth may use shield smash DI.
- AttackAirLw 6: The initial dair hitbox is still active. Because Marth's shield has already been hit by it, there is no collision on this frame.
- AttackAirLw 7: No hitbox is out on this frame. Marth is still in shieldstun.
- AttackAirLw 8: The second kick hitbox comes out. Because this is still the 4th frame of Marth's GuardReflect (the entire shield hitlag is counted as only one frame), the powershield sound and graphical effects are triggered again.
- Later kick hitboxes cause normal shield hitlag and hitstun without the powershield effects.
- After Fox lands on the ground, Marth will transition into GuardOff if he does not press any shoulder buttons anymore and can cancel it after GuardOff 0 with any ground attack. If he still holds L/R down after GuardDamage, he needs to let go after 3 frames of Guard in order to not lose the cancellation option.
- Here, up tilt was not an optimal choice, as on the frame its hitbox came out, Fox was just out of landing lag and could have shined. If he had done so, it would have collided with the up tilt hitbox, so Marth would still not have got hit.
In Super Smash Bros. Brawl
The ability to powershield returns in Brawl, now officially known as a perfect shield. It works similar to Melee, but with a few notable differences. One major change is that perfect shielding no longer reflects projectiles; should a projectile connect during perfect shield frames, it will either disappear or rebound off the shield at an angle instead of back in the direction it came from. A projectile that bounces off a character's shield can no longer affect that character unless it is a multi-hit attack. Additionally, perfect shielding a melee attack now incurs decreased shieldstun, and significantly less shield pushback, decreasing it by 0.15×. Lastly, a clear "clang" sound occurs when a perfect shield is executed.
In Super Smash Bros. 4
In Smash 4, perfect shielding initially worked the exact same way as in Brawl. As of update 1.1.1, however, its action time was reduced from 4 frames to 3 frames, making it more difficult to perform. In return, it decreases damage in the shieldstun formula by 0.66×, compensating for the increased shieldstun in said update and making it more rewarding when executed effectively. Perfect shielding in Smash 4 also produces a quieter sound effect than in Brawl; Ryu is an exception to this, as he instead uses a unique perfect shield sound effect based on the parry in Street Fighter III.
Certain equipment has special effects for perfect shields. The Easy Perfect Shield effect widens the window for performing a perfect shield, while the Explosive Perfect Shield effect causes them to create a small, damaging explosion.
In Super Smash Bros. Ultimate
Perfect shielding in Super Smash Bros. Ultimate functions completely differently than in previous games. It now requires the player to release the shield button when an attack connects against their shield, instead of the other way around. It is also significantly more dramatic upon activation: it creates a much brighter flash from the perfect shielder, causes their eyes to glow yellow, and they perform a unique animation similar to Ryu's shielding animation from Smash 4, while the sound effect produced is louder like in Brawl. Ryu keeps his unique sound effect and now shares it with Ken. Due to these properties, the perfect shield in Ultimate is usually referred to as a parry by the Smash community, as it better resembles the namesake technique from traditional fighting games.
Perfect shielding is activated during the first 5 frames of a character's shield drop animation, which lasts 11 frames (up from Smash 4's 7 frames). The shield has to be put up for at least 3 frames before it can be dropped, essentially causing the technique's earliest possible activation to be 4 frames upon shielding. As a result, while it has a larger window, it can no longer be done immediately, and is less likely to be activated unintentionally, thus carrying more risk. However, unlike in previous games, the radius of a perfect shield does not shrink in proportion to the character's shield, and instead always matches the size of a full shield, increasing its consistency.
Perfect shielding gives different amounts of extra hitlag to the attacker and defender, with intangibility for the defender. Depending on whether a perfect shielded attack is a projectile, and direct or indirect (determined by the attack's hitbox scripts), it has several outcomes:
- For direct non-projectile attacks, the attacker experiences 14 extra frames of hitlag, while the defender experiences 11 extra frames. As a result, the defender can act 3 frames earlier than shielding the attack normally. Although this difference in itself is minimal, perfect shielding still lets the user bypass shield drop lag with any attack like in previous games (compared to only aerial attacks, up smash, and up special), which is a more valuable attribute in Ultimate due to it having been increased, making perfect shielding much more advantageous for punishing usual direct attacks than shielding normally.
- For indirect non-projectile attacks (such as Zero Suit Samus' down smash, Mii Gunner's back aerial, and Bayonetta's smash attacks), the attacker experiences 14 extra frames of hitlag, and the defender experiences only 2 frames more. This allows the defender to act 12 frames earlier than shielding it normally, leaving these moves even more punishable by perfect shielding.
- For direct projectile attacks (such as Isabelle and Snake's up smashes), the attacker is not affected, while the defender experiences 8 extra frames of hitlag. This causes the user to act 8 frames later by comparison, making perfect shielding strictly worse for punishing these attacks than normal shielding.
- For indirect projectile attacks (usual projectiles), the attacker is not affected, while the defender experiences 1 frame less of hitlag. As a result, like with direct attacks, perfect shielding traditional projectiles offers an advantage over shielding them normally, albeit not as significant.
Prior to update 9.0.0, perfect shielding's advantage against both direct and indirect projectiles was 3 frames lower, so that the user could act 11 and 2 frames later (respectively) than shielding them normally, making it less effective against camping. Although update 3.0.0 allegedly increased these advantages to match the current versions, which was (vaguely) documented on Nintendo's official patch notes, it was discovered nearly a year after the update that these changes only applied to Training mode, and were thus irrelevant in competitive play; it was not until 9.0.0 that they applied to every game mode.
With perfect shielding now being tied to the shield drop animation, certain limits have been implemented to it. If an attack is shielded normally, perfect shielding is disabled on a subsequent shield drop unless it is done at least 3 frames after shieldstun ends, preventing characters from easily perfect shielding multi-hit moves that do not possess enough shieldstun to keep opponents trapped inbetween their hits. Similarly, from version 3.0.0 onward, multiple perfect shields cannot occur within the same shield drop. An exception is if the first hit of a move with multiple hits separated by only one frame is perfect shielded on the first shield drop frame, which causes the next hit to automatically be perfect shielded as well; an example of a move that can trigger this is Wolf's forward tilt.
Much like equipment in Smash 4, certain spirits can affect perfect shields: the returning Easy Perfect Shield effect widens the window for performing a perfect shield, while the Perfect Shield Reflect effect allows them to reflect projectiles, similar to how they worked in Melee.
There are 2 types of Powershielding. When you enter full-shield, the following happens:
- The first 2 frames are ineffective
- The next 2 frames are used to Powershield projectiles and physical hits
- The next 2 frames only Powershield physical hits
- Time Window is 2 frames
- Knockback is cancelled
- Hitlag is cancelled
- Projectile ownership becomes yours
- Projectile damage is halved
- Projectile is sent back in the opposite trajectory
Against Physical Hits:
- Time Window is 4 frames
- Knockback is increased
- Shield is cancelled (means you can do anything you want after Powershielding)
Also if your Full Shield get hits by a projectile on the 5th frame, it won't get Powershielded, but as long as you remain in shield mode, the next physical hit you receive will be Powershielded, even if you switch to Light-Shield.
Also, who is the easiest to powershield with, if there is one?
There were once 2538, but 2000 were lost. The remaining 538 must never come together. Ever.
But I know like virtually nothing about frame data and how Smash works, so you should just wait for Sa2master or someone to post.
"How are you a vet if you can't fly and shoot laser beams? It just doesn't make any sense." -Raging_Placenta
I've tried crouching before and it didn't really work at all. I would time the shield so that the shield would come up as soon as the laser is above me. The shield just absorbed it. Am I supposed to hold the shield all the way down or very lightly?
with your girlfriend eating chips
A good way I learned how to do it is by power-shielding Falcon Punch. Since the timing is consistent, it helps you get a feel for when you have to press the button.
"...Let me take another bite of my Slim Jim. It's way too good...That's a spicy Slim Jim!" -MLG Commentary by HugS
It only works if you press it all the way until it clicks. I honestly don't know if crouching makes it easier.
THANK YOU. I just powershielded a laser, he powershielded it back, and I powershielded it back and it hit.
I'm able to do it consistently now. I never knew you had to make it click.
You can't give it up. Triumph or die.
Melee power shield
The Melee Library
Lade discusses accepting what you cannot control, having the wherewithal to recognize when and where things go wrong, believing in yourself, taking responsibility for your failures, giving your opponent credit for their successes, not over-adapting, and knowing that everyone bleeds.
A professional Magic the Gathering player discusses the personality type he named Bruce. Bruce loses on purpose because he needs to lose. “Did you ever know someone who seemed like a born loser? Someone who just couldn't catch a break no matter what they did? Someone who always found a way to end up just short of being the winner? Someone who was cursed with more"bad luck" than anyone who has ever lived? Someone who could always preface his answer to"how'd you do?" with the word"if?"”
An analysis of the causes of tilting and its prevention.
Power Shield (ジャストシールド, Just Shield) (officially called Perfect Shield in Super Smash Bros. Brawl and Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS and Wii U) is a technique where one activates a full shield such that it connects with an incoming attack on the first few frames. Power Shields can also reflect or deflect projectiles depending on where the projectile is perfect shielded. For example, a Charge Shot that is Perfect Shielded near the op of the shield will be deflected at a diagonal angle.
In Super Smash Bros. Ultimate, Perfect Shields are activated upon releasing the shield button the same time an attack hits. Activating a Perfect Shield will cause the fighter to pose and flash white for a brief moment before being able to move. Power Shields in this game no longer reflect projectiles.
- Power Shield (電源シールド Dengen shīrudo) written as PowerShield in EarthBound Beginnings , is a PSI ability that can only be used by Ninten. But in EarthBound , Ness and Poo's Shield β (Beta) will create a powershield that reflects 50% of damage that was taken.
- Wccb weather girl
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- Bellingham comedy club
- Iron trail chevy
- Ati steel strike
- Murty law firm
- Aluminum outdoor ottoman
- Hd facebook covers
- Karaoke party songs
- Kenworth of pa
- Comparison theorem calculus
- Ascp mls exam
Created by Janoris (Mitchell Meier). Inspired by MetalMusicMan'sUltimate Frame Data. Send me a DM to my twitter if you notice any errors or have any suggestions (please read the entire info page before you point out an error).
While this website is "finished", there are still some GIFs and data missing, as well as some other features I am working on developing. Check out the GitHub page to see my current to-do list
The latest update to the Melee Database was the addition of the frame-by-frame seeker! To use this tool, click on the GIF of the move you want to see, and you'll see a window pop up with the option to look at each frame of the move one by one
Important: I downloaded these GIFs from multiple different sources. Some sources will start on frame 0 rather than frame 1 like my website does. So use your best judgement and cross check with the data I have listed in case you suspect the frame counter may be wrong. A small amount of GIFs also weirdly start in the middle of the move, but I hope to have caught those ones before this change is live. If you see any GIFs that seem way off, let me know!
Huge shoutout to Joel Schumacher for a majority of the frame data. He created an amazing application to extract most of the data from the game which is listed on his GitHub. I'd suggest checking out his website if you want to see other interesting info such as launch angles
Most other data, as well as character GIFs, were taken from this SmashBoards post from Stratocaster. People who contributed to the post include Seikend, Strong Bad, standardtoaster, Massive, Shoopman, Emma Watson's Boyfriend, Seikend, Aizen, knihT, and mastermoo420. The rest of the data was found on Smash Wiki
Also shoutout to Jack Kufa, vaexenc, bartdebever, xiaogz, and migueldlr for contributing to the code base, adding many requested features that I was not able to implement myself
Startup refers to the frame the hitbox will begin to be active
Active Frames refers to the frames of which a hitbox is out. This will refer to multiple hitboxes in multi-hit moves. If it is inactive for any significant amount of time inside the frame window listed, that will be explained in the notes section
Total Frames refers to the amount of frames a move has from the beginning of its activation to its final frame of endlag. Sometimes, with projectile moves, this number will be lower than the active end. Just know that once the frame listed is hit, your character will be able to act again
IASA stands for Interruptible As Soon As, which means you can cancel the animation if you input another action at said frame
Shield Stun refers to the amount of time an opponent will be stuck in shield if a character attacks their shield with said move. Every character will incur shield stun except for Yoshi
Base Damage refers to the amount of damage the move will do unstale. Since multi-hit moves are unreliable in this game, I decided to list damage as so: the first number is the amount of damage the strongest hitbox will do, while the second number is the amount of damage the weakest hit will do. So be careful reading these, as the total % damage a move is meant to do may not be the same as what is listed. Also, although there are no decimals in your percent in this game (like in ultimate), moves will still do those tenths of % damage. This means that sometimes, the % for multiple moves won't add up exactly to what will be listed. This is usually only a problem on moves with many hits, but unfortunately, I have not been able to find any data on the exact percentages these moves do, so all %'s listed are rounded to the nearest whole number
Auto Cancel refers to landing with an aerial at a certain time such that no excess landing lag will occur from said aerial
LFS stands for Landing Fall Special, and refers to the amount of frames a character will occur of landing lag if put into special fall by a particular move. Many up b's will incur this lag IF they end high above the stage and fall long enough to enter special fall. If not, they will go through normal landing lag
Landing Lag refers to the lag you experience if you land during the middle of a move that is not in the auto cancel window
L-Cancel Lag refers to the lag you experience if you perform a successful L Cancel while landing with a move (7 frame window before landing)
Inv. Frames stands for invulnerable frames, where a character can not be damaged/interacted with
PLA Intangibility Frames stands for Perfect Ledgedash Angle, and it describes the amount of intangibility frames a character will have to act with if a perfect ledgedash was performed (on Final Destination ledges)
Staling Moves is a mechanic that will change the damage and shieldstun a move will deal when that move is used multiple times. Numbers provided on this site refer to the base damage and shieldstun a move will do if it is not stale
To Power Shield projectiles, start shielding 2 frames before the projectile hits you. To power shield normal attacks, start shielding 4 frames before the attack hits you. Powershielding is useful because it will not deplete a character's shield and will decrease the amount of shieldstun a character receives (ONLY IF USING GROUNDED ATTACKS). Power shielding projectiles reflects them back at the opponent, but reduces their damage by half and lowers knockback.
Dropping Shield takes 15 frames. Jumping and grabbing out of shield does not incur shield drop
Jump Canceling refers to inputting an up smash, up special, grab, or item throw during a character's jump squat animation to cancel the jump and perform said move. Useful for characters to act quickly out of shield (except Yoshi, who can not jump out of shield), or to use a standing grab instead of a dash grab (to avoid extra frames of lag). This thread goes into detail about each character's best out of shield options
Throws have an interesting property where the amount of frames a throw takes to complete will depend on the weight of the character being thrown. The frame time window listed on this site are defaulted to throw Mario (a mid-weight), but I plan on adding info for how much these windows will change based on character weight in the future.