Sebaceous carcinoma dog

Sebaceous carcinoma dog DEFAULT



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We receive a fair amount of email from our Papillomavirus page from people with older dogs with numerous "warts" wondering if their dog's warts will go away as viral warts usually do. The problem is that in older dogs, what looks like a viral wart is probably a sebaceous gland tumor, while there is a 98% chance it is benign, it will not be going away any time soon.

It is not uncommon for an elderly dog to develop scores of "warts" which are not warts at all but are sebaceous growths. They are generally of cosmetic concern only but removal is recommended under the following circumstances:

  • when the growth has been bleeding.
  • when the growth is itchy or is in a location where it is bothering the pet.
  • when the growth is in a location where it interferes with normal grooming of the pet (i.e. the growth gets caught in the grooming clippers etc.).
  • when there is a question as to whether the growth actually IS a sebaceous tumor and biopsy is needed to settle the question.

These growths are typically small (pea size or smaller) and are thus generally amenable to removal with local anesthetic. This is helpful since often patients are older and not good anesthesia candidates. It is usually not practical to remove all the sebaceous growths but the most troublesome can be selected for removal.

Viral warts occur primarily on the face of young adult and adolescent dogs. Sebaceous gland tumors occur on any location, often in large numbers, and usually in older dogs (and occasionally in older cats).


There are several types of sebaceous gland tumors:

Nodular Sebaceous Hyperplasia

About 50% of sebaceous growths are technically not tumorous and fit into the sebaceous hyperplasia group. It is thought that this group ultimately progresses to the actual benign tumors described below. These lesions are round, cauliflower-like, and sometimes secrete material that forms a crust. Occasionally they even bleed. They are particularly common in Cocker spaniels, Beagles, Miniature Schnauzers, Poodles, and Dachshunds. This growth is technically not a tumor but is actually an area of excessive sebaceous cell division.

Sebaceous Epithelioma

Another 37% of sebaceous growths fit into this category. These look just the same as sebaceous hyperplasias to the naked eye but tend to occur in larger breeds and usually on the eyelids or head. They often pigment into a black color. They are actual benign tumors and not just areas of excessive sebaceous cell division.

Sebaceous Adenoma

These lesions also look the same as the others to the naked eye. These are also actual benign tumors that probably arose from areas of hyperplasia.

Sebaceous Carcinoma

About 2% of sebaceous tumors are malignant and may be locally invasive but even malignant sebaceous tumors rarely spread. They have a greater tendency towards ulceration than do the benign growths. Cocker spaniels seem to be predisposed.


Again, in most cases removal of sebaceous gland tumors is straight forward and can frequently be done with a simple local anesthetic. In the event that further treatment is needed, your veterinarian will inform you of options.

Date last updated: 2/5/2019


Skin Sebaceous Gland Tumors

  • Sebaceous gland tumors are subdivided into adenomatous hyperplasia, epithelioma, adenoma, or ADC according to the level of cellular maturation
  • Modified sebaceous glands include eyelid meibomian gland and perianal gland
  • Sebaceous gland tumors are rare in cats (2.3%-4.4%), but common in dogs (6.8%-7.9%)

+ Adenomatous Hyperplasia

  • Sebaceous hyperplasia can progress to sebaceous adenoma or ADC and may be a precursor to their development
  • Breed predisposition: Beagle, Cocker Spaniel, Poodle, and Miniature Schnauzer
  • Sex predisposition: males in cats and dogs
  • Androgen influence is suspected in pathophysiology and hyperadrenocorticism should be assessed in female dogs and dogs with recurrent adenomatous hyperplasia of the sweat glands
  • Gross appearance: solitary (± multiple) and grossly indistinguishable from adenoma
  • Sites: head in cats and limbs, trunk, and eyelids in dogs
  • Treatment: surgery
  • Prognosis: good with local tumor recurrence rare (1.1%) but de novo tumor development in up to 10%

+ Sebaceous Epithelioma

  • Breed predisposition: Shih Tzu, Lhasa Apso, Alaskan Malamute, Siberian Husky, and Irish Setter
  • Solitary form occurs primarily on the head and particularly the eyelids
  • Generalized form has been reported
  • Treatment: surgery
  • Prognosis: good with local tumor recurrence rate 6%

+ Sebaceous Gland Adenoma

  • Breed predisposition: Cocker Spaniel, Springer Spaniel, Boston Terrier, and Wire-Haired Terrier
  • Gross appearance and biologic behaviour similar to adenomatous hyperplasia
  • Sites: head
  • Treatment: surgery

+ Sebaceous Gland Adenocarcinoma

  • Rapid growth rate and ulceration
  • Site: perianal
  • Gross appearance: solitary, poorly circumscribed, ulcerated, and invasive
  • Local tumor recurrence and metastasis risk varies from low to 70%-90%


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October 2019

I-N10 (NP)



Signalment (JPC #1956324): Agedpoodle


HISTORY: One of several small dermal masses

HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION: Haired skin and subcutis (2 sections): Expanding the dermis, elevating the epidermis, and surrounding and widely separating adnexal structures is a 1 x 0.5cm, unencapsulated, well circumscribed, multilobulated proliferation of epithelial cells arranged in lobules forming adenomeres on a scant to moderate fibrovascular stroma. Epithelial cells undergo orderly maturation from peripheral basaloid reserve cells (flattened to cuboidal epithelial cells with scant amounts of eosinophilic cytoplasm, round to oval nuclei with finely stippled chromatin and 1 to 2 distinct nucleoli) to central polygonal cells with abundant vacuolated cytoplasm and similar round nuclei (sebaceous differentiation). Lobules are centered on compressed, ectatic ducts (dilated up to 1.5 mm) that are lined by keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The mitotic rate is 1 per 10 HPF and is confined to the basaloid reserve cells. Within the remaining dermis, apocrine glands are occasionally mildly dilated; lymphatics are mildly ectatic and collagen fibers are separated by clear space (edema).


MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: Haired skin and subcutis: Nodular sebaceous hyperplasia, focal, poodle, canine.


SYNONYM: Senile sebaceous hyperplasia



Signalment (JPC #2147441): Age and breed unspecified dog




HISTOPATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION: Haired skin: Expanding the dermis and subcutis, elevating the overlying epidermis, and compressing adjacent adnexa is a 1.0 x 0.75cm, partially encapsulated, well circumscribed, multilobulated, densely cellular neoplasm composed of polygonal cells arranged in islands and trabeculae supported by a fine fibrovascular stroma. The majority of cells (approximately 80%) are basaloid reserve cells characterized by variably distinct borders, scant to moderate amounts of granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, and round to oval nuclei with finely stippled chromatin and 1 to 3 nucleoli. The remaining 20% of neoplastic cells are characterized by multifocal individual or small aggregates of polygonal cells with distinct cell borders, abundant vacuolated eosinophilic cytoplasm, and centrally located, round nuclei with finely stippled chromatin and 1 or 2 distinct nucleoli (sebaceous differentiation).


The mitotic figures average 1 per 40x HPF and are confined to the basaloid reserve cells. There is multifocal single cell necrosis, large cystic spaces (up to 1 x 3 mm) filled with eosinophilic cellular and karyorrhectic debris (cystic degeneration), and few foci of ductular differentiation. Multifocal neoplastic cells and macrophages contain melanin. Multifocally within the mass and in the adjacent dermis are small aggregates of lymphocytes and plasma cells.


MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS: Haired skin and subcutis: Sebaceous epithelioma, breed unspecified, canine.



·      Sebaceous gland proliferative lesions are derived from basal cells capable of multiple differentiation paths sometimes within the same tumor; classified according to the level of cellular maturation (but tumor classification based on basal differentiation correlates poorly with biological behavior):

·      Hyperplastic lesion: Nodular sebaceous hyperplasia

·      Neoplastic lesions:

·      Sebaceous adenoma

·      Ductal adenoma

·      Sebaceous epithelioma (low grade malignancy), common epithelial skin tumor in the dog

·      Sebaceous carcinoma

·      Meibomian glands: Specialized sebaceous glands of the eyelid, develop analogous neoplasms to sebaceous glands



·      Unknown



·      Nodular sebaceous hyperplasia:

·      Single or multiple raised, yellow-orange, single or multi-lobulated waxy to hyperkeratotic mass; most often on the head, eyelids, limbs, and trunks of aged animals

·      Predisposed breeds: Poodle, Cocker Spaniel

·      Sebaceous epithelioma:

·      Solitary, firm, nodular or fungiform, or plaque-like mass frequently ulcerated

·      Low-grade malignancy, rarely may metastasize to local lymph nodes

·      Head, neck, ears, and dorsum are common sites

·      Common in dogs, particularly Lhasa Apsos and Shih Tzus



·      Nodular sebaceous hyperplasia:

·      Multiple multilobulated, small (usually <1cm)

·      Epidermis is frequently hyperplastic and hyperkeratotic and may be ulcerated

·      Sebaceous epithelioma:

·      Solitary, raised, smooth, greasy to hyperkeratotic

·      Occasionally cauliflower-like, red to orange

·      Frequently pigmented and/or ulcerated



·      Nodular sebaceous hyperplasia:

·      Well-demarcated, multilobulated, intradermal mass composed of lobules arranged around distended keratinized sebaceous ducts and hair follicles

·      Lobules surrounded by a single peripheral layer of basaloid reserve cells

·      Well-differentiated sebocytes predominate

·      Sebaceous epithelioma:

·      Basaloid reserve cells predominate

·      Multiple, large, irregular islands of epithelial basaloid reserve cells with variable margins

·      Sebocytes are found individually or as small aggregates

·      Higher mitotic rate

·      Foci of ductal differentiation as horn cysts

·      Variable melanization

·      Lymphatic invasion occasionally found at periphery



·      Sebaceous adenoma (if eyelid, Meibomian adenoma): Sebocytes predominate, lobules not arranged around a distended duct, degeneration and drop-out (cystic degeneration) of central zones of mature sebocytes common

·      Sebaceous ductal adenoma (Meibomian ductal adenoma): Haphazard arrangement of predominantly ducts admixed with fewer basaloid reserve cells and sebocytes

·      Sebaceous carcinoma (Meibomian carcinoma): Marked pleomorphism; high mitotic activity; variable cytoplasmic lipid content

·      Basal cell carcinoma: Low grade malignancy without adnexal differentiation

·      Meibomian epithelioma: Low grade malignancy; similar to sebaceous counterpart; frequently pigmented; differentiate from melanoma



·      Seen occasionally in cats

·      Rarely reported in other domestic animals

·      Occur in humans



1.    Hargis AM, Myers, S. The Integument. In: Zachary JF, ed. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2016:1034.

2.    Kiupel, M, ed. Surgical Pathology of Tumors of Domestic Animals: Volume 1. Epithelial Tumors of the Skin. Gurnee, IL: Davis-Thompson Foundation, 2018:125-146; 232.

3.    Mauldin EA, Peters-Kennedy J. In: Maxie MG, ed. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 1. 6th ed, St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:717-720.


Immunohistochemical characterization of sebaceous epithelioma in two dogs

Iran J Vet Res. 2016 Spring; 17(2): 134–136.

J. S. Yoon1 and J. Park2,*

J. S. Yoon

1Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul, Korea;

Find articles by J. S. Yoon

J. Park

2Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756, Korea

Find articles by J. Park

Author informationArticle notesCopyright and License informationDisclaimer

1Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul, Korea;

2Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756, Korea

*Correspondence: J. Park, Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756, Korea. E-mail: [email protected]

Received 2015 Aug 12; Revised 2015 Dec 19; Accepted 2016 Jan 23.

Copyright notice


This report describes two cases of sebaceous epithelioma and its immunohistochemical characterization with CK 14, CK18, p63, Ki67 and Bcl-2 immunostaining. Case 1 was a 12-year-old, intact English Cocker spaniel female presenting with multiple skin nodules over one year. Case 2 was a 7-year-old, spayed poodle female with a five-month history of solitary mass. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining showed that the nodules in both cases were irregular lobules comprised of epithelial cells around well-differentiated sebocytes. Neoplastic cells were positive for CK14 and p63 but were negative for CK18 cell marker. In addition, immunostaining for Ki67 proliferation marker showed 13.1% and 12.4% positive cells in the two cases, respectively. Furthermore, Bcl-2, which is highly expressed in human benign sebaceous tumors, was seen in basaloid cell nuclei and cytoplasm. CK14, CK18, p63, Ki67, and Bcl-2 antibody application provided further information for diagnosing sebaceous epithelioma and for prognosis in these two cases.

Key Words: Bcl-2, Cytokeratin, Dog, Immunohistochemistry, Sebaceous epithelioma


Sebaceous gland tumors can be divided into five main types: hyperplasia, adenoma, ductal adenoma, epithelioma, and carcinoma, according to their histo-pathological features and clinical presentation (Gross et al., 2005 ▶). Sebaceous hyperplasia is the most common sebaceous tumor in dogs and is composed of pro-liferation of mature sebaceous lobules around one or more central squamous ducts. Sebaceous adenoma consists of lobules of normal mature sebocytes and fully-lipidized cells with few basaloid cells. Sebaceous ductal adenoma is characterized by multiple enlarged ducts with few sebocytes or basaloid cells. Sebaceous carcinoma, which presents with the most malignant features in sebaceous tumors, consists of poorly defined lobules of atypical neoplastic cells showing cytoplasmic lipidization reminiscent of sebaceous cells (Gross et al., 2005 ▶; Bongiovanni et al., 2012 ▶).

Sebaceous epithelioma is firm nodules that are either solitary or multiple. It is mostly seen in middle-aged or older dogs and often occurs on the head, ears, and dorsum. Breeds at higher risk for sebaceous epithelioma include Cocker spaniel, Lhasa Apso, Shi-tzu, Siberian husky, Irish setter, and Alaskan malamute (Gross et al., 2005 ▶). Histopathological findings are characterized by moderate lobular irregularity, basaloid cell proliferation with few well-differentiated sebocytes surrounded by interlobular stroma (Gross et al., 2005 ▶; Bettini et al., 2009 ▶).

In the present report, two sebaceous epithelioma cases and their immunohistochemical characterization were investigated using anti-CK14, CK18, p63, Ki67, and Bcl-2 antibodies in order to determine whether those markers are useful for diagnosing sebaceous epithelioma and evaluating potential malignancy in dogs.

Case presentation

Case 1 was a 12-year-old, intact English Cocker spaniel female presenting with multiple skin nodules. Her medical history showed that an initial nodule was found on the ear pinnae, then multiple nodules formed on the trunk, neck, limbs, paw and face over the course of the next year. Nodules were moderate to firm in consistency, round to verrucous, and some were ulcerated (Fig. 1A). At the time of surgical excision, 22 nodules were present.

Case 2 was a 7-year-old, spayed poodle female with a five-month history of solitary mass in the hind limb. The mass was firm, round, and 1-2 cm in size (Fig. 1B). All nodules in both cases were surgically removed. Two nodules on the trunk and paw of case 1 and the one nodule in case 2 were subjected to histopathological analysis.

Tissue specimens were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. Tissue sections about 4 mm were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using antibodies for CK14, CK18, P63, Ki67, and Bcl-2. Antigen-antibody com-plexes were detected using the avidin-biotin complex procedure. Detailed immunohistochemistry antibody information is shown in Table 1. After immunoreaction, sections were colorized with 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole and counterstained with Mayer’s hematoxylin. In order to evaluate the proliferation index, Ki67 immunolabeling was quantified as the Ki67-labeling index (the number of positive cells per 1000 nuclei in neoplastic cells) in five high power fields (HPF). Histopathological analysis showed case 1 nodules to be composed of irregular lobules with few scattered mature sebocytes surrounded by interlobular stroma (Fig. 2A). In the lobules, the majority of cells resembled epithelial basaloid cells with scant eosinophilic cytoplasm, and the nuclei were round to ovoid and fairly uniform with one to three small nucleoli. Six to eight mitotic figures were seen per each HPF (Fig. 2A). Similar to the findings in case 1, case 2 H&E-stained sections also showed irregular trabecules infiltrated by epithelial basaloid cells with scattered mature sebocytes, surrounded by fibrous stroma (data not shown). Epithelial basal cells showed scant eosinophilic cytoplasm, as seen in case 1, and the nuclei were uniform and round to ovoid with one to two small nucleoli (data not shown). Mitotic figures were rare (0 to 2 per HPF). Squamous differentiation and keratinization were also noted in case 1 and case 2 sections. In order to confirm that the neoplastic cells originated from basaloid reserve cells of sebaceous glands, immunohistochemistry using CK14 and p63 sebocyte and basaloid cell markers in combination with CK18 luminal cell markers was performed. Basaloid and sebocytic cell cytoplasm showed strong positive CK14 expression (Fig. 2B), and basaloid cell nuclei were positive for p63, in both cases (Fig. 2C). CK18 was rarely stained in both cases (data not shown). In order to investigate malignant potential in these cases, immunohistochemistry for Ki67 and Bcl-2 was performed. Neoplastic cell nuclei in both cases were stained with anti-Ki67 antibody and the Ki67 index was 13.1%, and 12.4%, respectively. Furthermore, anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 was also strongly expressed in basaloid cell nuclei and cytoplasm in both cases (Fig. 2D). Based on these findings, both cases were diagnosed as canine sebaceous epithelioma. In order to determine if metastatic lesions were present, thoracic and abdominal radiography was performed in both cases, but no active lesions were found.

Table 1

Detailed antibody information

Antigen/AntibodyCloneSourceWorking dilution
Cytokeratin 14 LL002 Abcam 1:100
P63 SC8431 Santa Cruz 1:100
Cytokeratin 18 C-04 Abcam 1:100
Ki67 MIB-1 Dako 1:100
Bcl-2 50E3 Cell signaling 1:50

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Fig. 2

Histopathologic findings in case 1. A: Nodules are comprised of irregular trabecules with few mature sebocytes, the majority of cells resemble epithelial basaloid cells with scant eosinophilic cytoplasm and the nuclei were ovoid and fairly uniform, with one to three small nucleoli. Mitotic figures (arrows) were frequently seen per high power field, hematoxylin and eosin staining. B: Cytoplasmic staining for CK 14 was observed in the basaloid cells. C: P63 was largely stain in the nuclei of the basaloid cells. D: Large amounts of cytoplasmic and nucleic staining for Bcl-2 anti apoptotic factor were noted in the basaloid cells of nodules, (Bar indicates 100 μm


Sebaceous epithelioma is a common sebaceous tumor comprising 37.2% of all sebaceous tumors in dogs (Gross et al., 2005 ▶). However, immunohistochemical characterization of sebaceous epithelioma has rarely been reported in dogs. This study investigated immuno-histochemical characteristics in two sebaceous epithelioma cases using anti-CK14, CK18, p63, Ki67, and Bcl-2 antibodies.

Case 1 showed multiple nodules in a Cocker spaniel, a breed reported to have a high incidence of sebaceous epithelioma. Case 2, a poodle, presented with a single solitary nodule. Studies on the immunohistochemical findings of human sebaceous tumors suggested that anti-cytokeratin (CK) antibodies could be useful in diagnosing sebaceous tumors (Ansai et al., 1994 ▶; Ansai et al., 2011 ▶). Sebaceous carcinoma and sebacema (a benign sebaceous epithelioma) are positive for anti-CK5 and anti-CK14 antibodies and negative for anti-CK1, CK10, CK15, CK17, CK18, and CK20 antibodies (Ansai et al., 1994 ▶). In dogs, a small number of case reports have described immunohistochemical characterization of sebaceous tumors. It has been reported that normal and neoplastic sebocytes are stained with CK14 but not CK18 or CK19 (Saraiva et al., 2008 ▶; Yasuno et al., 2011 ▶). Basal sebaceous gland reserve cells also stain positive for CK14 and p63 (Yasuno et al., 2011 ▶). On the other hand, CK18 is considered a luminal epithelial marker and is expressed in normal and neoplastic apocrine sweat glands (Kato et al., 2007 ▶; Yasuno et al., 2011 ▶). Histological and immunohistochemical findings of nodules in the present cases were consistent with canine sebaceous epithelioma. Strong positive expression for CK14 and p63, and negative expression for CK18 were observed, supporting the premise that neoplastic cells originated from basaloid sebocytic cells not from apocrine luminal cells. Immunohistochemical examina-tion for CK14 and p63 in combination with CK18 may be useful when diagnosing sebaceous epithelioma and excluding other adnexal luminal tumors.

Sebaceous epithelioma can be categorized as low-grade malignancy, and local recurrence can be seen after surgical excision (Gross et al., 2005 ▶). However, seba-ceous epithelioma is an occasionally aggressive tumor that metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and distant organs (Bettini et al., 2009 ▶). In order to differentiate between malignant sebaceous carcinoma and benign sebaceous tumor in humans, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki67 markers are used (Hasebe et al., 1994 ▶; Cabral et al., 2006 ▶). In these cases, no metastases to regional lymph nodes or distant organs were found. The Ki67 index in these two dogs were 13.1% and 12.4%, respectively, which are somewhat lower than those previously reported for sebaceous epithelioma with metastases in a canine and for sebaceous carcinoma in a human (Bettini et al., 2009 ▶; Ansai et al., 2011 ▶). This finding indicates that a low Ki67 index level might reflect non-metastasis and relatively good prognoses for the present cases. A large retrospective study to evaluate proliferation markers in sebaceous epithelioma would be useful to identify histological criteria for low- to high-grade differentiation and to evaluate patient prognosis.

Furthermore, anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 is rarely expressed in malignant sebaceous carcinoma and is also a useful marker for distinguishing between malignant and benign sebaceous tumors (Cabral et al., 2006 ▶). Weak Bcl-2 expression was observed in sebaceous carcinoma, while benign sebaceous tumors highly express Bcl-2 (Ansai et al., 2011 ▶). This suggests that anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 may reflect a lack of apoptotic sensitivity in malignant sebaceous tumor (Ansai et al., 2011 ▶). In dogs, Bcl-2 expression in sebaceous tumors has not been investigated. In the present cases, similar to benign sebaceous tumor findings in humans, strong Bcl-2 staining was noted; suggesting that sebaceous epithelio-ma in dog also highly expresses the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 factor. Further study to compare Bcl-2 expression in sebaceous epithelioma and malignant sebaceous carcinoma will provide information on the role of Bcl-2 in determining malignancy in dog sebaceous tumors.

In this report, we diagnosed sebaceous epithelioma in Cocker spaniel and poodle by clinical and histopathological findings. The neoplastic basaloid cells of sebaceous epithelioma were positive for CK14, p63, Ki67, and Bcl-2, as shown by immunohistochemistry. Application of anti-CK14, CK18, p63, Ki67 and Bcl-2 antibodies in the present cases provided further information for diagnosing sebaceous epithelioma and determining prognosis. A further large-scale study investigating these markers in sebaceous tumors would be helpful for diagnosing sebaceous tumor and distinguishing between benign and malignant sebaceous tumors.


This paper was supported by research funds of Chonbuk National University in 2014.


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Articles from Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research are provided here courtesy of Shiraz University


Dog sebaceous carcinoma

Skin Diseases: Sebaceous Gland Tumors

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I’ve been taking my cat, Xena, to ASAC for nearly 10 years now for her skin condition. Always very friendly! — Melissa and Mark Miller

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Our yellow lab, Sydney, started having serious allergic reactions to her new environment. Her skin broke out in rashes and lesions, and she was itching so badly that it kept the entire house up at night. Since Sydney started seeing Dr. Duclos, she’s back to her normal, happy self. Thank you! — Dave Mongan

Discovering this clinic was a great relief for us. Maggie, our mini-labradoodle, developed an uncommon disease that our regular vet was unable to diagnose. Dr Duclos recognized it immediately and his treatment regimen has given us back our little friend with gusto. Thank you Dr Duclos! — Ardith Karr Arnold

We took Abby, to Animal Skin and Allergy Clinic because she had glue ear in both ears. The Vet was super nice and took care of her the same day. The thing I liked the most about the visit was that they took a video of the procedure they did on my Abby’s ears and showed it to me. — Cynthia Paro

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Sebaceous carcinoma \u0026 Torre Muir syndrome Phillip McKee, Antonina Kalmykova, CSD Health Care

Sweat Gland, Sebaceous Adenocarcinoma in Dogs

Adenocarcinoma is a glandular skin cancer that occurs when a malignant growth develops from sebaceous glands and sweat glands. Skin cancer appears as solid, firm or raised areas (lesions) on the skin. The lesions can bleed (ulcerate) and the area may swell or become red. While these tumors are most common on the face, they can occur anywhere the animal has sweat glands. Treatment options are generally effective when started early and in many cases leads to a positive outcome.

The condition or disease described in this medical article can affect both dogs and cats. If you would like to learn more about how this disease affects cats, please visit this page in the PetMD health library. 

Symptoms and Types 

Lesions can be present on the dog's body as a single lesion or in many different areas. Skin cancer can appear as a solid, firm mass, or a raised lesion on the skin.


The cause of skin cancer is currently unknown.


For a proper diagnosis to be made, a biopsy will be necessary. Your veterinarian will take a tissue sample of the tumor to evaluate under a microscope, and will more than likely be performing a  cytologic examination of the structure of the cells from the sample to determine whether the disease has spread throughout the body, and the speed at which it is metastasizing (spreading). An X-ray may also be used to determine if internal tumors are present.


Removal of the tumor is performed surgically. Lymph nodes may also need to be drained if affected by the cancer. Radiation therapy can then be used to treat the lymph nodes to prevent recurrence and spreading (metastasis) of the disease into other areas. Chemotherapy drugs are also used to treat tumors. The degree of treatment is determined by the severity the disease.

Living and Management

The long-term prognosis is often good for animals treated early and aggressively. Aggressive treatment often involves surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.


There is currently no way to prevent skin cancer.


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