Silver hypochlorite formula

Silver hypochlorite formula DEFAULT

What is the formula for silver hypochlorite?

silver hypochlorite structureCommon Namesilver hypochlorite
CAS Number
DensityN/A
Molecular FormulaAgClO
MSDSN/A

What is the name for AgClO?

Silver Hypochlorite AgClO Molecular Weight &#; EndMemo.

What is the formula and charge for hypochlorite? Hypochlorite is an ion composed of chlorine and oxygen with the chemical formula ClO−. Being unstable in the pure form, hypochlorite is most commonly used for bleaching, disinfectation, and water treatment purposes in its salt form, sodium hypochlorite.

Is AgClO4 acidic or basic?

Silver typically has a positive one charge, and is written as Ag+1. The silver ion and the perchlorate ion will stick together to form a neutral ionic compound with the formula AgClO4.

Is silver perchlorate soluble?

Silver Perchlorate is also amazingly soluble in water, up to g per mL of water. Similar to silver nitrate, silver perchlorate is an effective reagent for replacing halides ligands with perchlorate, which is a weakly or non-coordinating anion.

Is silver sulfate soluble in water?

Silver sulfate (Ag2SO4) is an ionic compound of silver used in silver plating and as a non-staining substitute to silver nitrate. This sulfate is stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage, though it darkens upon exposure to air or light. It is minimally soluble in water.

Is hypochlorite the same as bleach?

Sodium hypochlorite, commonly known as bleach, is most frequently used as a disinfecting agent. It is a broad-spectrum disinfectant that is effective for the disinfection of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and mycobacterium.

What is the charge of K?

ElementProtonsNet Charge
Potassium atom190
Potassium ion19+1
Sulfur atom160
Sulfur ion16−2

Is AgNO3 acidic or basic?

Answer: No, AgNO3 does not form an acidic solution nor a basic solution. In order for something to be considered an acid or base it has to produce either H+ or OH- in water.

Is AgBr acidic or basic?

In the above, all of the anions are capable of reacting with H+ ions to form weak acids except AgBr ( HBr is a strong base).

Is AgCl a base or acid?

The base of silver is weak, whereas chlorine acid is strong. When the weak base reacts with a strong acid, it forms acidic salt. It means the salt that produces acidic ph, currently (ammonia), becomes a base when dissolved in water. Thus, chlorine from AgCl reacts with NH₃ to produce NH₄-Cl.

Is agno3 soluble or insoluble in water?

Silver Nitrate is highly soluble in water but is poorly soluble in most organic solvents, except acetonitrile ( g/ g, 25°C).

Is AgCl soluble or insoluble?

If two solutions are mixed together it is possible that two ions could combine to form an insoluble ionic complex. A solution of silver nitrate is combined with a solution of sodium chloride. The resulting solution contains Na+, Ag+, Cl-, and NO3-, but AgCl is not soluble in water.

How do you dissolve silver sulfate?

Silver sulfate is indeed poorly soluble in water. Add an excess of concentrated ammonia (28 wt. % NH3 in water) to your solution, and stirr. The formation of ammonia complexes Ag(NH3)2+ should significantly help the dissolution.

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Does Jerry Seinfeld have Parkinson's disease? Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? For example: To achieve 5 mg/L chlorine in a litre tank add approximately 8 grams of 65% calcium hypochlorite. Example Reactions: • NaClO + AgNO3 = AgClO + NaNO3. How long will the footprints on the moon last? How much does does a dollar roblox gift card get you in robhx? Ano ang mga kasabihan sa sa aking kababata? Silver hypochlorite is an ionic compound that exists between a silver ion and a hypochlorite ion. Silver Cyanate: Structure, Properties & Formula, Over 83, lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, Silver Carbonate: Chemical Formula & Solubility, Silver Oxide: Formula, Decomposition & Formation, What is Silver Sulfide? The new team members get along famously. The whole number above the element's symbol is its atomic number. flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? How Do I Use Study.com's Assign Lesson Feature? What is the formula for hypochlorite? Molar Mass: study Let's determine the molar mass of silver hypochlorite. Create an account to start this course today. {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | The quantity of each element in the compound is multiplied by its respective molar mass off the periodic table. Matthew has a Master of Arts degree in Physics Education. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. Hypochlorous acid, HClO (aq), reacts with silver nitrate, AgNO3 (aq), to produce silver hypochlorite, AgClO (aq) and nitric acid, HNO3 (aq). Services. • AgClO3 = AgClO + O2. Silver Hypochlorite. Articles of silver hypochlorite are included as well. Let's make a chart showing the quantity of each element in silver hypochlorite, their molar masses, and the total molar mass of each element in the compound. Silver is a metallic ion, Ag+1, and hypochlorite is the polyatomic ion, ClO In chemistry, hypochlorite is an anion with the chemical formula ClO −. It is very soluble (stays as ions in water). Journals | silver hypochlorite CAS Number: Molecular Weight: Density: N/A: Boiling Point: N/A: Molecular Formula: AgClO: Melting Point: N/A: MSDS: N/A Flash Point: N/A Get access risk-free for 30 days, How Does Acid Rain Affect Plants & Plant Growth? In this lesson, we will determine its chemical formula, its solubility, and its molar mass. This value is represented in grams-per-mole (g/mole). The chlorine and the oxygen in the hypochlorite ion share electrons in a covalent bond. 3. Copyright © Multiply Media, LLC. The chemical formula for silver(I) oxide is Ag2O.The chemical formula for silver(II) oxide is AgO. Hypochlorite is an ion composed of chlorine and oxygen with the chemical formula ClO−. Study.com has thousands of articles about every It immediately decomposes into aqueous silver chlorate, AgClO3 (aq), and the insoluble silver chloride, AgCl (s). To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. Print Silver Hypochlorite: Formula, Solubility & Molar Mass Worksheet 1. Since silver hypochlorite is so unstable, it immediately decomposes into insoluble silver chloride and aqueous silver chlorate. Then, all of masses are summed. first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. What is a product of the reaction between hypochlorus acid and silver nitrate, HClO (aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) → ? Buying Leads | Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. It is a very unstable compound and breaks apart, forming new compounds. The teams break apart and the employees switch partners. The hypochlorite ion includes a chlorine atom and an oxygen atom that share electrons in a covalent bond. The number in red below the element's symbol is its atomic mass, or molar mass. Ano ang pinakamaliit na kontinente sa mundo? silver p-bromophenylcyanomethylenenitronate. Selling Leads | This means that one mole of silver hypochlorite has a mass grams. Please note the above calculations are only estimates. courses that prepare you to earn The amount of chlorine required to be HClO (aq) + AgNO3 (aq) → AgClO (aq) + HNO3 (aq). Not sure what college you want to attend yet? just create an account. Silver hypochlorite is an ionic compound between silver and the polyatomic ion hypochlorite. Since both ions are oppositely charged, they stick together, forming AgClO. Silver hypochlorite is formed along with nitric acid. Decisions Revisited: Why Did You Choose a Public or Private College? credit by exam that is accepted by over 1, colleges and universities. Create your account, Already registered? Formula: AgClO. Service | To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. All rights reserved. He has taught high school chemistry and physics for 14 years. What is the chemical formula for silver hypochlorite? Total Molar Mass of Compound = g/mole + g/mole + g/mole = g/mole. MSDS/SDS Database Search | When did organ music become associated with baseball? | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} Being unstable in the pure form, hypochlorite is most commonly used for bleaching, disinfectation, and water treatment purposes in its salt form, sodium hypochlorite. What is the time signature of the song Atin Cu Pung Singsing? If you are 13 years old when were you born? Supervisor pairs the four employees into two teams is its atomic mass, or molar mass of silver has! Employees into two teams + g/mole + g/mole = g/mole ( granular or powdered chlorine required. Respective owners has a Master of Arts degree in Physics Education a dollar roblox gift card you Has taught high school chemistry and Physics for 14 years & Inorganic Study! 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Ionic compound that exists between a silver ion and a hypochlorite ion share electrons in a litre tank approximately Example: to achieve 5 mg/L chlorine in a covalent bond Did you Choose Public! ) oxide is Ag2O.The chemical formula for silver ( I ) oxide is Ag2O.The formula. And copyrights are the property of their respective owners, visit our Earning Credit Page your How much does does a dollar roblox gift card get you in robhx of Arts degree Physics. Of hypochlorous acid and silver nitrate four new employees Organic & Inorganic compounds Study Page. Team members do n't get along shows the elements in silver hypochlorite represented in (! Study.Com 's Assign lesson Feature: Why Did you Choose a Public or Private? The polyatomic ion hypochlorite hypochlorites, which may also be regarded as the salts of acid 'S Assign lesson Feature ) and very unstable reigning WWE Champion of all time,! 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What is the formula for silver hypochlorite?

silver hypochlorite structureCommon Namesilver hypochlorite
CAS Number
DensityN/A
Molecular FormulaAgClO
MSDSN/A

Click to see full answer.


In this way, what is the formula for hypochlorite?

ClO&#;

Additionally, what elements are in hypochlorite? Hypochlorite is an ion composed of chlorine and oxygen with the chemical formula ClO−. Being unstable in the pure form, hypochlorite is most commonly used for bleaching, disinfectation, and water treatment purposes in its salt form, sodium hypochlorite.

Similarly, what is the charge of hypochlorite?

Related oxyanions. Chlorine can be the nucleus of oxoanions with oxidation states of −1, +1, +3, +5, or +7. (The element can also assume oxidation state of +4 is seen in the neutral compound chlorine dioxide ClO2).

Is hypochlorite a base?

Sodium hypochlorite is a base. It is also too danger. It's neither an Acid or a Base, it's a Salt. it is sodium salt of hypochlorus acid.

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Sodium hypochlorite

Chemical compound

NaOCl.svg
Sodium-hypochlorite-3D-vdW.png
Names
IUPAC name

Sodium hypochlorite

Other names
  • Antiformin
  • Bleach
  • Chloride of soda
In dilution:
  • Carrel-Dakin solution
  • Modified Dakin's solution
  • Surgical chlorinated soda solution
Identifiers

CAS Number

  • (anhydrous)&#;checkY
  • (pentahydrate)&#;checkY

3D model (JSmol)

ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCardEdit this at Wikidata
EC Number
KEGG

PubChemCID

RTECS number
UNII
UN number

CompTox Dashboard(EPA)

InChI

  • InChI=1S/ClO.Na/c;/q-1;+1&#;checkY
    Key:&#;SUKJFIGYRHOWBL-UHFFFAOYSA-N&#;checkY
  • InChI=1/ClO.Na/c;/q-1;+1

    Key:&#;SUKJFIGYRHOWBL-UHFFFAOYAD

Properties

Chemical formula

NaOCl
Molar mass g/mol
Appearance greenish-yellow solid (pentahydrate)
Odorchlorine-like and sweetish
Density g/cm3
Melting point 18&#;°C (64&#;°F; &#;K) pentahydrate
Boiling point &#;°C (&#;°F; &#;K) (decomposes)

Solubility in water

g/mL (0&#;°C)[1]
Acidity (pKa)
Basicity (pKb)
Thermochemistry

Std enthalpy of
formation(ΔfH)

kJ/mol
Pharmacology

ATC code

D08AX07 (WHO)
Hazards
Safety data sheetICSC (solution, >10% active chlorine)
ICSC (solution, <10% active chlorine)

EU&#;classification (DSD) (outdated)

Corrosive (C)
Dangerous for the environment (N)
R-phrases(outdated)R31, R34, R50
S-phrases(outdated)(S1/2), S28, S45, S50, S61
NFPA (fire&#;diamond)
Related compounds

Other anions

Sodium chloride
Sodium chlorite
Sodium chlorate
Sodium perchlorate

Other cations

Lithium hypochlorite
Calcium hypochlorite
Potassium hypochlorite

Related compounds

Hypochlorous acid

Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25&#;°C [77&#;°F], &#;kPa).

☒N&#;verify&#;(what is&#;checkY☒N&#;?)
Infobox&#;references

Chemical compound

Sodium hypochlorite (commonly known in a dilute solution as bleach) is a chemical compound with the formula NaOCl or NaClO, comprising a sodiumcation (Na+
) and a hypochloriteanion (OCl
or ClO
). It may also be viewed as the sodium salt of hypochlorous acid. The anhydrous compound is unstable and may decompose explosively.[2][3] It can be crystallized as a pentahydrateNaOCl·5H
2O, a pale greenish-yellow solid which is not explosive and is stable if kept refrigerated.[4][5]

Sodium hypochlorite is most often encountered as a pale greenish-yellow dilute solution referred to as liquid bleach, which is a household chemical widely used (since the 18th century) as a disinfectant or a bleaching agent.

In solution, the compound is unstable and easily decomposes, liberating chlorine which is the active principle of such products. Sodium hypochlorite is the oldest and still most important chlorine-based bleach.[6][7]

Its corrosive properties, common availability, and reaction products make it a significant safety risk. In particular, mixing liquid bleach with other cleaning products, such as acids or ammonia, will produce chlorine gas, a poison gas used in World War I.[8][9][10]

Chemistry[edit]

Stability of the solid[edit]

Anhydrous sodium hypochlorite can be prepared but, like many hypochlorites, it is highly unstable and decomposes explosively on heating or friction.[2] The decomposition is accelerated by carbon dioxide at atmospheric levels.[3][11] It is a white solid with the orthorhombic crystal structure.[12]

Sodium hypochlorite can also be obtained as a crystallinepentahydrateNaOCl·5H
2O, which is not explosive and is much more stable than the anhydrous compound.[3][4] The formula is sometimes given as 2NaOCl·10H
2O.[citation needed] The transparent, light greenish-yellow, orthorhombic[13][14] crystals contain 44% NaOCl by weight and melt at 25–27&#;°C. The compound decomposes rapidly at room temperature, so it must be kept under refrigeration. At lower temperatures, however, it is quite stable: reportedly only 1% decomposition after days at 7&#;°C.[5][15]

A US patent claims that stable solid sodium hypochlorite dihydrate NaOCl·2H
2O can be obtained by carefully excluding chloride ions (Cl
), which are present in the output of common manufacturing processes and are said to catalyze the decomposition of hypochlorite into chlorate (ClO
3) and chloride. In one test, the dihydrate was claimed to show only 6% decomposition after months storage at −25&#;°C. The patent also claims that the dihydrate can be reduced to the anhydrous form by vacuum drying at about 50&#;°C, yielding a solid that showed no decomposition after 64 hours at −25&#;°C.[16]

Equilibria and stability of solutions[edit]

At typical ambient temperatures, sodium hypochlorite is more stable in dilute solutions that contain solvated Na+
and OCl
ions. The density of the solution is &#;g/mL at 5% concentration,[17] and &#;g/mL at 14%, 20&#;°C.[18]Stoichiometric solutions are fairly alkaline, with pH 11 or higher[5] since hypochlorous acid is a weak acid:

OCl
+ H
2O ⇌ HOCl + OH

The following species and equilibria are present in solutions of NaOCl:[19]

HOCl (aq) ⇌ H+
+ OCl
HOCl (aq) + Cl
+ H+
⇌ Cl
2 (aq) + H
2O
Cl
2 (aq) + Cl
⇌ Cl
3
Cl
2 (aq) ⇌ Cl
2 (g)

The second equilibrium equation above will be shifted to the right if the chlorine Cl
2 is allowed to escape as gas. The ratios of Cl
2, HOCl, and OCl
in solution are also pH dependent. At pH below 2, the majority of the chlorine in the solution is in the form of dissolved elemental Cl
2. At pH greater than , the majority is in the form of hypochlorite ClO
.[6] The equilibrium can be shifted by adding acids (such as hydrochloric acid) or bases (such as sodium hydroxide) to the solution:

ClO
(aq) + 2 HCl (aq) → Cl
2 (g) + H
2O (aq) + Cl
(aq)
Cl
2 (g) + 2 OH
→ ClO
(aq) + Cl
(aq) + H
2O (aq)

At a pH of about 4, such as obtained by the addition of strong acids like hydrochloric acid, the amount of undissociated (nonionized) HOCl is highest. The reaction can be written as:

ClO
+ H+
⇌ HClO

Sodium hypochlorite solutions combined with acid evolve chlorine gas, particularly strongly at pH < 2, by the reactions:

HOCl (aq) + Cl
+ H+
⇌ Cl
2 (aq) + H
2O
Cl
2 (aq) ⇌ Cl
2 (g)

At pH > 8, the chlorine is practically all in the form of hypochlorite anions (OCl
). The solutions are fairly stable at pH 11– Even so, one report claims that a conventional % NaOCl reagent solution lost 17% of its strength after being stored for days at 7&#;°C.[5] For this reason, in some applications one may use more stable chlorine-releasing compounds, such as calcium hypochloriteCa(ClO)
2 or trichloroisocyanuric acid(CNClO)
3.

Anhydrous sodium hypochlorite is soluble in methanol, and solutions are stable.[citation needed]

Decomposition to chlorate or oxygen[edit]

In solution, under certain conditions, the hypochlorite anion may also disproportionate (autoxidize) to chloride and chlorate:[20]

3 ClO
+ H+
→ HClO
3 + 2 Cl

In particular, this reaction occurs in sodium hypochlorite solutions at high temperatures, forming sodium chlorate and sodium chloride:[20][21]

3 NaOCl (aq) → 2 NaCl (aq) + NaClO
3 (aq)

This reaction is exploited in the industrial production of sodium chlorate.

An alternative decomposition of hypochlorite produces oxygen instead:

2 OCl
→ 2 Cl
+ O
2

In hot sodium hypochlorite solutions, this reaction competes with chlorate formation, yielding sodium chloride and oxygen gas:[20]

2 NaOCl (aq) → 2 NaCl (aq) + O
2 (g)

These two decomposition reactions of NaClO solutions are maximized at pH around 6. The chlorate-producing reaction predominates at pH above 6, while the oxygen one becomes significant below that. For example, at 80&#;°C, with NaOCl and NaCl concentrations of 80 mM, and pH 6–, the chlorate is produced with ∼95% efficiency. The oxygen pathway predominates at pH [20] This decomposition is affected by light[21] and metal ion catalysts such as copper, nickel, cobalt,[20] and iridium.[22] Catalysts like sodium dichromateNa
2Cr
2O
7 and sodium molybdateNa
2MoO
4 may be added industrially to reduce the oxygen pathway, but a report claims that only the latter is effective.[20]

Titration[edit]

Titration of hypochlorite solutions is often done by adding a measured sample to an excess amount of acidified solution of potassium iodide (KI) and then titrating the liberated iodine (I
2) with a standard solution of sodium thiosulfate or phenyl arsine oxide, using starch as indicator, until the blue color disappears.[14]

According to one US patent, the stability of sodium hypochlorite content of solids or solutions can be determined by monitoring the infrared absorption due to the O–Cl bond. The characteristic wavelength is given as μm for water solutions, μm for the solid dihydrate NaOCl·2H
2O, and μm for the anhydrous mixed salt Na
2(OCl)(OH).[16]

Oxidation of organic compounds[edit]

Oxidation of starch by sodium hypochlorite, that adds carbonyl and carboxyl groups, is relevant to the production of modified starch products.[23]

In the presence of a phase-transfer catalyst, alcohols are oxidized to the corresponding carbonyl compound (aldehyde or ketone).[24][5] Sodium hypochlorite can also oxidize organic sulfides to sulfoxides or sulfones, disulfides or thiols to sulfonyl chlorides or bromides, imines to oxaziridines.[5] It can also de-aromatizephenols.[5]

Oxidation of metals and complexes[edit]

Heterogeneous reactions of sodium hypochlorite and metals such as zinc proceed slowly to give the metal oxide or hydroxide:

NaOCl + Zn → ZnO + NaCl

Homogeneous reactions with metal coordination complexes proceed somewhat faster. This has been exploited in the Jacobsen epoxidation.

Other reactions[edit]

If not properly stored in airtight containers, sodium hypochlorite reacts with carbon dioxide to form sodium carbonate:

2 NaOCl + CO
2 + H
2O → Na
2CO
3 + 2 HOCl

Sodium hypochlorite reacts with most nitrogen compounds to form volatile monochloramine, dichloramines, and nitrogen trichloride:

NH
3 + NaOCl → NH
2Cl + NaOH
NH
2Cl + NaOCl → NHCl
2 + NaOH
NHCl
2 + NaOCl → NCl
3 + NaOH

Neutralization[edit]

Sodium thiosulfate is an effective chlorine neutralizer. Rinsing with a 5&#;mg/L solution, followed by washing with soap and water, will remove chlorine odor from the hands.[25]

Production[edit]

Chlorination of soda[edit]

Potassium hypochlorite was first produced in by Claude Louis Berthollet in his laboratory on the Quai de Javel in Paris, France, by passing chlorine gas through a solution of potash lye. The resulting liquid, known as "Eau de Javel" ("Javel water"), was a weak solution of potassium hypochlorite. Antoine Labarraque replaced potash lye by the cheaper soda lye, thus obtaining sodium hypochlorite (Eau de Labarraque).[26][27]

Cl2 (g) + 2 NaOH (aq) → NaCl (aq) + NaClO (aq) + H2O (aq)

Hence, chlorine is simultaneously reduced and oxidized; this process is known as disproportionation.

The process is also used to prepare the pentahydrate NaOCl·5H
2O for industrial and laboratory use. In a typical process, chlorine gas is added to a 45–48% NaOH solution. Some of the sodium chloride precipitates and is removed by filtration, and the pentahydrate is then obtained by cooling the filtrate to 12&#;°C .[5]

From calcium hypochlorite[edit]

Another method involved the reaction of sodium carbonate ("washing soda") with chlorinated lime ("bleaching powder"), a mixture of calcium hypochloriteCa(OCl)
2, calcium chlorideCaCl
2, and calcium hydroxideCa(OH)
2:

Na
2CO
3 (aq) + Ca(OCl)
2 (aq) → CaCO
3 (s) + 2 NaOCl (aq)
Na
2CO
3 (aq) + CaCl
2 (aq) → CaCO
3 (s) + 2 NaCl (aq)
Na
2CO
3 (aq) + Ca(OH)
2 (s) → CaCO
3 (s) + 2 NaOH (aq)

This method was commonly used to produce hypochlorite solutions for use as a hospital antiseptic that was sold after World War I under the names "Eusol", an abbreviation for Edinburgh University Solution Of (chlorinated) Lime – a reference to the university's pathology department, where it was developed.[28]

Electrolysis of brine[edit]

Near the end of the nineteenth century, E. S. Smith patented the chloralkali process: a method of producing sodium hypochlorite involving the electrolysis of brine to produce sodium hydroxide and chlorine gas, which then mixed to form sodium hypochlorite.[29][27][30] The key reactions are:

2 Cl → Cl2 + 2 e (at the anode)
2 H
2O + 2 e → H
2 + 2 HO
(at the cathode)

Both electric power and brine solution were in cheap supply at the time, and various enterprising marketers took advantage of the situation to satisfy the market's demand for sodium hypochlorite. Bottled solutions of sodium hypochlorite were sold under numerous trade names.

Today, an improved version of this method, known as the Hooker process (named after Hooker Chemicals, acquired by Occidental Petroleum), is the only large-scale industrial method of sodium hypochlorite production. In the process, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and sodium chloride (NaCl) are formed when chlorine is passed into cold dilute sodium hydroxide solution. The chlorine is prepared industrially by electrolysis with minimal separation between the anode and the cathode. The solution must be kept below 40&#;°C (by cooling coils) to prevent the undesired formation of sodium chlorate.

Commercial solutions always contain significant amounts of sodium chloride (common salt) as the main by-product, as seen in the equation above.

From hypochlorous acid and soda[edit]

A patent describes the production of solid stable dihydrate NaOCl·2H
2O by reacting a chloride-free solution of hypochlorous acid HClO (such as prepared from chlorine monoxide ClO and water), with a concentrated solution of sodium hydroxide. In a typical preparation, mL of a solution with g/L HClO is slowly added with stirring to a solution of 40 g of NaOH in water 0&#;°C. Some sodium chloride precipitates and is removed by fitration. The solution is vacuum evaporated at 40–50&#;°C and 1–2 mmHg until the dihydrate crystallizes out. The crystals are vacuum-dried to produce a free-flowing crystalline powder.[16]

The same principle was used in another patent to produce concentrated slurries of the pentahydrate NaClO·5H
2O. Typically, a 35% solution (by weight) of HClO is combined with sodium hydroxide at about or below 25&#;°C. The resulting slurry contains about 35% NaClO, and are relatively stable due to the low concentration of chloride.[31]

From ozone and salt[edit]

Sodium hypochlorite can be easily produced for research purposes by reacting ozone with salt.

NaCl + O3 → NaClO + O2

This reaction happens at room temperature and can be helpful for oxidizing alcohols.

Packaging and sale[edit]

Main article: Bleach

Bleach packaged for household use, with % sodium hypochlorite

Household bleach sold for use in laundering clothes is a 3–8% solution of sodium hypochlorite at the time of manufacture. Strength varies from one formulation to another and gradually decreases with long storage. Sodium hydroxide is usually added in small amounts to household bleach to slow down the decomposition of NaClO.[6]

Domestic use patio blackspot remover products are ~10% solutions of sodium hypochlorite.

A 10–25% solution of sodium hypochlorite is, according to Univar's safety sheet, supplied with synonyms or trade names bleach, Hypo, Everchlor, Chloros, Hispec, Bridos, Bleacol, or Vo-redox [32]

A 12% solution is widely used in waterworks for the chlorination of water, and a 15% solution is more commonly[33] used for disinfection of waste water in treatment plants. Sodium hypochlorite can also be used for point-of-use disinfection of drinking water,[34] taking mg of sodium hypochlorite per liter of water.[35]

Dilute solutions (50 ppm to %) are found in disinfecting sprays and wipes used on hard surfaces.[36][37]

Uses[edit]

Bleaching[edit]

Household bleach is, in general, a solution containing 3–8% sodium hypochlorite, by weight, and –% sodium hydroxide; the sodium hydroxide is used to slow the decomposition of sodium hypochlorite into sodium chloride and sodium chlorate.[38]

Cleaning[edit]

Sodium hypochlorite has destaining properties.[39] Among other applications, it can be used to remove mold stains, dental stains caused by fluorosis,[40] and stains on crockery, especially those caused by the tannins in tea. It has also been used in laundry detergents and as a surface cleaner. It is also used in Sodium hypochlorite washes.

Its bleaching, cleaning, deodorizing and caustic effects are due to oxidation and hydrolysis (saponification). Organic dirt exposed to hypochlorite becomes water-soluble and non-volatile, which reduces its odor and facilitates its removal.

Disinfection[edit]

See also: Hypochlorous acid

Sodium hypochlorite in solution exhibits broad spectrum anti-microbial activity and is widely used in healthcare facilities in a variety of settings.[41] It is usually diluted in water depending on its intended use. "Strong chlorine solution" is a % solution of hypochlorite (containing approximately ppm free chlorine) used for disinfecting areas contaminated with body fluids, including large blood spills (the area is first cleaned with detergent before being disinfected).[41][42] It may be made by diluting household bleach as appropriate (normally 1 part bleach to 9 parts water).[43] Such solutions have been demonstrated to inactivate both C. difficile[41] and HPV.[44] "Weak chlorine solution" is a % solution of hypochlorite used for washing hands, but is normally prepared with calcium hypochlorite granules.[42]

"Dakin's Solution" is a disinfectant solution containing low concentration of sodium hypochlorite and some boric acid or sodium bicarbonate to stabilize the pH. It has been found to be effective with NaOCl concentrations as low as %.[45]

US government regulations allow food processing equipment and food contact surfaces to be sanitized with solutions containing bleach, provided that the solution is allowed to drain adequately before contact with food, and that the solutions do not exceed parts per million (ppm) available chlorine (for example, one tablespoon of typical household bleach containing % sodium hypochlorite, per gallon of water).[46] If higher concentrations are used, the surface must be rinsed with potable water after sanitizing.

A similar concentration of bleach in warm water is used to sanitize surfaces prior to brewing of beer or wine. Surfaces must be rinsed with sterilized (boiled) water to avoid imparting flavors to the brew; the chlorinated byproducts of sanitizing surfaces are also harmful. The mode of disinfectant action of sodium hypochlorite is similar to that of hypochlorous acid.

Solutions containing more than ppm available chlorine are corrosive to some metals, alloys and many thermoplastics (such as acetal resin) and need to be thoroughly removed afterwards, so the bleach disinfection is sometimes followed by an ethanol disinfection. Liquids containing sodium hypochlorite as the main active component are also used for household cleaning and disinfection, for example toilet cleaners.[47] Some cleaners are formulated to be viscous so as not to drain quickly from vertical surfaces, such as the inside of a toilet bowl.

The undissociated (nonionized) hypochlorous acid is believed to react with and inactivate bacterial and viral enzymes.

Neutrophils of the human immune system produce small amounts of hypochlorite inside phagosomes, which digest bacteria and viruses.

Deodorizing[edit]

Sodium hypochlorite has deodorizing properties, which go hand in hand with its cleaning properties.[39]

Waste water treatment[edit]

Sodium hypochlorite solutions have been used to treat dilute cyanide waste water, such as electroplating wastes. In batch treatment operations, sodium hypochlorite has been used to treat more concentrated cyanide wastes, such as silver cyanide plating solutions. Toxic cyanide is oxidized to cyanate (OCN) that is not toxic, idealized as follows:

CN + OCl → OCN + Cl

Sodium hypochlorite is commonly used as a biocide in industrial applications to control slime and bacteria formation in water systems used at power plants, pulp and paper mills, etc., in solutions typically of 10–15% by weight.

Endodontics[edit]

Sodium hypochlorite is the medicament of choice due to its efficacy against pathogenic organisms and pulp digestion in endodontic therapy. Its concentration for use varies from % to %. At low concentrations it dissolves mainly necrotic tissue; at higher concentrations it also dissolves vital tissue and additional bacterial species. One study has shown that Enterococcus faecalis was still present in the dentin after 40 minutes of exposure of % and % sodium hypochlorite, whereas 40 minutes at a concentration of % was effective in E. faecalis removal.[48] In addition to higher concentrations of sodium hypochlorite, longer time exposure and warming the solution (60&#;°C) also increases its effectiveness in removing soft tissue and bacteria within the root canal chamber.[48] 2% is a common concentration as there is less risk of an iatrogenic hypochlorite incident.[49] A hypochlorite incident is an immediate reaction of severe pain, followed by edema, haematoma, and ecchymosis as a consequence of the solution escaping the confines of the tooth and entering the periapical space. This may be caused by binding or excessive pressure on the irrigant syringe, or it may occur if the tooth has an unusually large apical foramen.[50]

Nerve agent neutralization[edit]

At the various nerve agent (chemical warfare nerve gas) destruction facilities throughout the United States, 50% sodium hypochlorite is used to remove all traces of nerve agent or blister agent from Personal Protection Equipment after an entry is made by personnel into toxic areas. 50% sodium hypochlorite is also used to neutralize any accidental releases of nerve agent in the toxic areas. Lesser concentrations of sodium hypochlorite are used in similar fashion in the Pollution Abatement System to ensure that no nerve agent is released in furnace flue gas.

Reduction of skin damage[edit]

Dilute bleach baths have been used for decades to treat moderate to severe eczema in humans,[51][52] but it has not been clear why they work. According to work published by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine in November , a very dilute (%) solution of sodium hypochlorite in water was successful in treating skin damage with an inflammatory component caused by radiation therapy, excess sun exposure or aging in laboratory mice. Mice with radiation dermatitis given daily minute baths in bleach solution experienced less severe skin damage and better healing and hair regrowth than animals bathed in water. A molecule called nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) is known to play a critical role in inflammation, aging, and response to radiation. The researchers found that if NF-κB activity was blocked in elderly mice by bathing them in bleach solution, the animals' skin began to look younger, going from old and fragile to thicker, with increased cell proliferation. The effect diminished after the baths were stopped, indicating that regular exposure was necessary to maintain skin thickness.[51][53]

Safety[edit]

It is estimated that there are about 3, accidents needing hospital treatment caused by sodium hypochlorite solutions each year in British homes (RoSPA, ).

Oxidation and corrosion[edit]

Sodium hypochlorite is a strong oxidizer. Oxidation reactions are corrosive. Solutions burn the skin and cause eye damage, especially when used in concentrated forms. As recognized by the NFPA, however, only solutions containing more than 40% sodium hypochlorite by weight are considered hazardous oxidizers. Solutions less than 40% are classified as a moderate oxidizing hazard (NFPA , ).

Household bleach and pool chlorinator solutions are typically stabilized by a significant concentration of lye (caustic soda, NaOH) as part of the manufacturing reaction. This additive will by itself cause caustic irritation or burns due to defatting and saponification of skin oils and destruction of tissue. The slippery feel of bleach on skin is due to this process.

Storage hazards[edit]

Contact of sodium hypochlorite solutions with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated due to release of chlorine gas.[11]

Hypochlorite solutions are corrosive to common container materials such as stainless steel[5] and aluminium. The few compatible metals include titanium (which however is not compatible with dry chlorine) and tantalum.[6] Glass containers are safe.[5] Some plastics and rubbers are affected too; safe choices include polyethylene (PE), high density polyethylene (HDPE, PE-HD), polypropylene (PP),[5] some chlorinated and fluorinated polymers such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF); as well as ethylene propylene rubber, and Viton.[6]

Containers must allow venting of oxygen produced by decomposition over time, otherwise they may burst.[2]

Reactions with other common products[edit]

Mixing bleach with some household cleaners can be hazardous.

Sodium hypochlorite solutions, such as liquid bleach, may release toxic chlorine gas when heated above 35&#;°C[11] or mixed with an acid, such as hydrochloric acid or vinegar.

A study indicated that sodium hypochlorite and organic chemicals (e.g., surfactants, fragrances) contained in several household cleaning products can react to generate chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs).[54] These chlorinated compounds are emitted during cleaning applications, some of which are toxic and probable human carcinogens. The study showed that indoor air concentrations significantly increase (8–52 times for chloroform and 1– times for carbon tetrachloride, respectively, above baseline quantities in the household) during the use of bleach containing products. The increase in chlorinated volatile organic compound concentrations was the lowest for plain bleach and the highest for the products in the form of "thick liquid and gel." The significant increases observed in indoor air concentrations of several chlorinated VOCs (especially carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) indicate that the bleach use may be a source that could be important in terms of inhalation exposure to these compounds. The authors suggested that using these cleaning products may significantly increase the cancer risk.[54]

In particular, mixing hypochlorite bleaches with amines (for example, cleaning products that contain or release ammonia, ammonium salts, urea, or related compounds and biological materials such as urine) produces chloramines.[55][11] These gaseous products can cause acute lung injury. Chronic exposure, for example, from the air at swimming pools where chlorine is used as the disinfectant, can lead to the development of atopic asthma.[56]

Bleach can react violently with hydrogen peroxide and produce oxygen gas:

H2O2 (aq) + NaOCl (aq) → NaCl (aq) + H2O (aq) + O2 (g)

Explosive reactions or byproducts can also occur in industrial and laboratory settings when sodium hypochlorite is mixed with diverse organic compounds.[11]

Limitations in health care[edit]

The UK's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in October recommended that Dakin's solution should not be used in routine wound care.[57]

Environmental impact[edit]

In spite of its strong biocidal action, sodium hypochlorite per se has limited environmental impact, since the hypochlorite ion rapidly degrades before it can be absorbed by living beings.[58]

However, one major concern arising from sodium hypochlorite use is that it tends to form persistent chlorinated organic compounds, including known carcinogens, that can be absorbed by organisms and enter the food chain. These compounds may be formed during household storage and use as well during industrial use.[38] For example, when household bleach and wastewater were mixed, 1–2% of the available chlorine was observed to form organic compounds.[38] As of , not all the byproducts had been identified, but identified compounds include chloroform and carbon tetrachloride.[38] The estimated exposure to these chemicals from use is estimated to be within occupational exposure limits.[38]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Budavari S, O'Neil M, Smith A, Heckelman P, Obenchain J (). "Sodium hypochlorite". The Merck Index (12th&#;ed.). p.&#; ISBN&#;.
  2. ^ abcUrben P (). Bretherick's Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. 1 (7th&#;ed.). p.&#; ISBN&#;.
  3. ^ abcHamano A (). "The formation and decomposition of sodium hypochlorite anhydrous salt and its pentahydrate". Science and Technology of Energetic Materials. 58 (4): –
  4. ^ abApplebey MP (). "Sodium hypochlorite". Journal of the Chemical Society, Transactions. (XCVI): – doi/CT
  5. ^ abcdefghijkKirihara M, Okada T, Sugiyama Y, Akiyoshi M, Matsunaga T, Kimura Y (December ). "Sodium Hypochlorite Pentahydrate Crystals (NaOCl· 5H2O): A Convenient and Environmentally Benign Oxidant for Organic Synthesis". Organic Process Research & Development. 21 (12): – doi/acs.oprd.7b
  6. ^ abcde"OxyChem Sodium Hypochlorite Handbook"(PDF). oxy.com. OxyChem.
  7. ^"Pamphlet 96, The Sodium Hypochorite Manual". www.chlorineinstitute.org. The Chlorine Institute.
  8. ^Faith, Thomas (). Behind the gas mask&#;: the U.S. chemical warfare service in war and peace. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press. p.&#;9. ISBN&#;. Retrieved 14 April
  9. ^"April 22, Germans introduce poison gas". This Day In History. Retrieved 14 April
  10. ^Gross, Daniel A. (Spring ). "Chemical Warfare: From the European Battlefield to the American Laboratory". Distillations. 1 (1): 16– Retrieved 20 March
  11. ^ abcde(): "Sodium Hypochlorite" Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory Safe Handling Guideline, chapter 53, product Accessed on
  12. ^Yaws CL (). The Yaws Handbook of Physical Properties for Hydrocarbons and Chemicals (2nd&#;ed.). Gulf Professional Publishing. p.&#; ISBN&#;.
  13. ^""Sodium Hypochlorite Pentahydrate, NaOCl·5H
    2O]". MatWeb Material Property Data website. Retrieved 12 July
  14. ^ ab"Sodium Hypochlorite". StudFiles. Retrieved 14 June
  15. ^Okada T, Asawa T, Sugiyama Y, Iwai T, Kirihara M, Kimura Y (June ). "Sodium hypochlorite pentahydrate (NaOCl·5H2O) crystals; An effective re-oxidant for TEMPO oxidation". Tetrahedron. 72 (22): – doi/j.tet
  16. ^ abcUS , Walsh RH, Dietz A, "Process for preparing stable sodium hypochlorites", issued &#;
  17. ^"Sodium hypochlorite". PubChem. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  18. ^Environment Canada (): "Tech Info for Problem Spills: Sodium Hypochlorite (Draft)".
  19. ^Wang L, Bassiri M, Najafi R, Najafi K, Yang J, Khosrovi B, et&#;al. (April ). "Hypochlorous acid as a potential wound care agent: part I. Stabilized hypochlorous acid: a component of the inorganic armamentarium of innate immunity". Journal of Burns and Wounds. 6: e5. PMC&#; PMID&#;
  20. ^ abcdefSandin S, Karlsson RK, Cornell A (April ). "Catalyzed and uncatalyzed decomposition of hypochlorite in dilute solutions". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 54 (15): – doi/iea.
  21. ^ abHamano A, Ikeda A (). "The pH effect on the photodecomposition of sodium hypochlorite solution". Science and Technology of Energetic Materials. 56 (2): 59–
  22. ^Ayres GH, Booth MH (). "Catalytic Decomposition of Hypochlorite Solution by Iridium Compounds. I. The pH-Time Relationship". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 77 (4): – doi/jaa
  23. ^ASC – PT Asahimas Chemical (): "Sodium hypochlorite". Online product description. Accessed on
  24. ^Mirafzal GA, Lozeva AM (). "Phase transfer catalyzed oxidation of alcohols with sodium hypochlorite". Tetrahedron Letters. 39 (40): – doi/S(98)
  25. ^"Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater"(PDF). www.umass.edu. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation. Retrieved 26 January
  26. ^Vogt H, Balej J, Bennett JE, Wintzer P, Sheikh SA, Gallone P (). "Chlorine Oxides and Chlorine Oxygen Acids". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (7th&#;ed.). Wiley. p.&#;2.
  27. ^ ab"Sodium hypochlorite as a disinfectant". Lenntech.com. Retrieved 7 August
  28. ^"eusol". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 3 July
  29. ^May P. "Bleach (Sodium Hypochlorite)". University of Bristol. Archived from the original on 13 December Retrieved 13 December
  30. ^"How Products Are Made Volume 2". May
  31. ^US , Duncan BL, Ness RC, "Process for the production of highly pure concentrated slurries of sodium hypochlorite", issued &#;
  32. ^"SAFETY DATA SHEET Sodium Hypochlorite"(PDF). Univar. 9 August
  33. ^Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal, & Reuse (3rd&#;ed.). Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. p.&#;
  34. ^Lantagne DS (). "Sodium hypochlorite dosage for household and emergency water treatment". IWA Publishing. 16 (1).
  35. ^"What is Chlorination?".
  36. ^Vieira ER (). Elementary Food Science. Springer. pp.&#;– ISBN&#;.
  37. ^Wilhelm N, Kaufmann A, Blanton E, Lantagne D (February ). "Sodium hypochlorite dosage for household and emergency water treatment: updated recommendations". Journal of Water and Health. 16 (1): – doi/wh PMID&#;
  38. ^ abcdeSmith WT. (). Human and Environmental Safety of Hypochlorite. In: Proceedings of the 3rd World Conference on Detergents: Global Perspectives, pp. –5.
  39. ^ ab"Benefits and Safety Aspects of Hypochlorite Formulated in Domestic Products"(PDF). AISE – International Association for Soaps, Detergents and Maintenance Products. March Archived from the original(PDF) on 30 March
  40. ^Cárdenas Flores A, Flores Reyes H, Gordillo Moscoso A, Castanedo Cázares JP, Pozos Guillén A (). "Clinical efficacy of 5% sodium hypochlorite for removal of stains caused by dental fluorosis". The Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 33 (3): – doi/jcpdct PMID&#;
  41. ^ abcRutala WA, Weber DJ (15 February ) []. "Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities"(PDF). www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 29 August
  42. ^ ab"For General Healthcare Settings in West Africa: How to Prepare and Use Chlorine Solutions". Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 27 April
  43. ^"How to Make Strong (%) Chlorine Solution from Liquid Bleach"(PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  44. ^Meyers J, Ryndock E, Conway MJ, Meyers C, Robison R (June ). "Susceptibility of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 to clinical disinfectants". The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 69 (6): – doi/jac/dku PMC&#; PMID&#;
  45. ^
  46. ^21 CFR Part
  47. ^"Toilet Cleaners: Learn About Chemicals Around Your House: Pesticides: US EPA". United States Environmental Protection Agency. 9 May
  48. ^ abRoot Canal Irrigants and Disinfectants. Endodontics: Colleagues for Excellence. Published for the Dental Professional Community by the American Association of Endodontists. Winter
  49. ^Torabinejad M, Walton R (). Endodontics. VitalBook (4th&#;ed.). W.B. Saunders Company. p.&#;
  50. ^Hülsmann M, Hahn W (May ). "Complications during root canal irrigation--literature review and case reports"(PDF). International Endodontic Journal. 33 (3): – doi/jx. PMID&#;
  51. ^ abConger K (15 November ). "Inflammatory skin damage in mice blocked by bleach solution, study finds". Stanford School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 7 December
  52. ^Pett K, Batta K, Vlachou C, Nicholls G. "Bleach baths using Milton Sterilising Fluid for recurrent infected atopic eczema". Archived from the original on 12 December
  53. ^Leung TH, Zhang LF, Wang J, Ning S, Knox SJ, Kim SK (December ). "Topical hypochlorite ameliorates NF-κB-mediated skin diseases in mice". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. (12): – doi/JCI PMC&#; PMID&#;
  54. ^ abOdabasi M (March ). "Halogenated volatile organic compounds from the use of chlorine-bleach-containing household products". Environmental Science & Technology. 42 (5): – BibcodeEnSTO. doi/esu. PMID&#; Lay summary.
  55. ^Krieger GR, Sullivan Jr JB (). Clinical environmental health and toxic exposures (2&#;ed.). Philadelphia, Pa. [u.a.]: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p.&#; ISBN&#;. Retrieved 30 August
  56. ^Nickmilder M, Carbonnelle S, Bernard A (February ). "House cleaning with chlorine bleach and the risks of allergic and respiratory diseases in children". Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. 18 (1): 27– doi/jx. PMID&#; S2CID&#;
  57. ^Do not use Eusol and gauze to manage surgical wounds that are healing by secondary intention, October , NICE, LondonArchived 14 July at the Wayback Machine.Accessed 3 July
  58. ^ASC – PT Asahimas Chemical (): "Sodium hypochlorite 10%". Online Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Accessed on

Bibliography[edit]

  • Jones FL (December ). "Chloride poisoning from mixing household cleaners". JAMA. (10): doi/jama PMID&#;
  • Bonnard M, Brondeau MT, Falcy M, Jargot D, Miraval S, Protois J, Schneider O. "Eaux et extraits de Javel Hypochlorite de sodium en solution". Fiche Toxicologique. .

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_hypochlorite

Hypochlorite formula silver

Silver chloride

Chemical compound with the formula AgCl

Chlorid stříbrný.PNG
Silver-chloride-3D-ionic.png
Names
IUPAC name

Silver(I) chloride

Other names

Cerargyrite
Chlorargyrite
Horn silver
Argentous chloride

Identifiers

CAS Number

3D model (JSmol)

ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCardEdit this at Wikidata

PubChemCID

RTECS number
UNII

CompTox Dashboard(EPA)

InChI

  • InChI=1S/Ag.ClH/h;1H/q+1;/p-1&#;checkY
    Key:&#;HKZLPVFGJNLROG-UHFFFAOYSA-M&#;checkY
  • InChI=1S/Ag.ClH/h;1H/q+1;/p-1

  • Key:&#;HKZLPVFGJNLROG-UHFFFAOYSA-M

Properties

Chemical formula

AgCl
Molar mass&#;g·mol−1
Appearance White Solid
Density g cm&#;3
Melting point &#;°C (&#;°F; &#;K)
Boiling point 1,&#;°C (2,&#;°F; 1,&#;K)

Solubility in water

μg/ g at 50 °C

Solubility product (Ksp)

×10&#;10[1]
Solubilitysoluble in NH3, conc. HCl, conc. H2SO4, alkali cyanide, (NH4)2CO3, KBr, Na2S2O3;

insoluble in alcohol, dilute acids.

Magnetic susceptibility (&#;)

&#;·10−6 cm3/mol

Refractive index (nD)

Structure

Crystal structure

halite
Thermochemistry

Std molar
entropy(S)

96&#;J·mol−1·K−1[2]

Std enthalpy of
formation(ΔfH)

−&#;kJ·mol−1[2]
Hazards
Safety data sheetFischer Scientific, Salt Lake Metals
NFPA (fire&#;diamond)
Related compounds

Other anions

silver(I) fluoride, silver bromide, silver iodide

Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25&#;°C [77&#;°F], &#;kPa).

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Infobox&#;references

Chemical compound

Silver chloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formulaAgCl. This white crystalline solid is well known for its low solubility in water (this behavior being reminiscent of the chlorides of Tl+ and Pb2+). Upon illumination or heating, silver chloride converts to silver (and chlorine), which is signaled by grey to black or purplish coloration to some samples. AgCl occurs naturally as a mineral chlorargyrite.

Preparation[edit]

Silver chloride is unusual in that, unlike most chloride salts, it has very low solubility. It is easily synthesized by metathesis: combining an aqueous solution of silver nitrate (which is soluble) with a soluble chloride salt, such as sodium chloride or cobalt(II) chloride. The silver chloride that forms will precipitate immediately.

{\displaystyle {\ce {AgNO3 + NaCl -> AgCl(v) + NaNO3}}}
{\displaystyle {\ce {2 AgNO3 + CoCl2 -> 2 AgCl(v) + Co(NO3)2}}}

Structure and reactions[edit]

Pyramidal crystals of AgCl

The solid adopts the fccNaCl structure, in which each Ag+ ion is surrounded by an octahedron of six chloride ligands. AgF and AgBr crystallize similarly.[3] However, the crystallography depends on the condition of crystallization, primarily free silver ion concentration, as is shown on the pictures left (greyish tint and metallic lustre are due to partly reducedsilver). AgCl dissolves in solutions containing ligands such as chloride, cyanide, triphenylphosphine, thiosulfate, thiocyanate and ammonia. Silver chloride reacts with these ligands according to the following illustrative equations:

{\displaystyle {\ce {AgCl (s) + Cl^- (aq) -> AgCl2^- (aq)}}}
{\displaystyle {\ce {AgCl (s) + 2 S2O3^2- (aq) ->(Ag(S2O3)2)^3- (aq) + Cl^- (aq)}}}
{\displaystyle {\ce {AgCl (s) + 2 NH3(aq) -> Ag(NH3)2+ (aq) + Cl^- (aq)}}}

Silver chloride does not react with nitric acid. Most complexes derived from AgCl are two-, three-, and, in rare cases, four-coordinate, adopting linear, trigonal planar, and tetrahedral coordination geometries, respectively.

{\displaystyle {\ce {3AgCl(s) + Na3AsO3(aq) -> Ag3AsO3(s) + 3NaCl(aq)}}}
{\displaystyle {\ce {3AgCl(s) +Na3AsO4(aq) -> Ag3AsO4(s) + 3NaCl(aq)}}}

Above 2 reactions are particularly important in qualitative analysis of AgCl in labs as AgCl is white in colour , which changes to {\displaystyle {\ce {Ag3AsO3}}} (silver arsenite) which is yellow in colour or {\displaystyle {\ce {Ag3AsO4}}}(Silver arsenate) which is reddish brown in colour.

Chemistry[edit]

Silver chloride decomposes over time with exposure to UV light

In one of the most famous reactions in chemistry, addition of colorless aqueous silver nitrate to an equally colorless solution of sodium chloride produces an opaque white precipitate of AgCl:[4]

{\displaystyle {\ce {Ag+ (aq) + Cl^- (aq) -> AgCl (s)}}}

This conversion is a common test for the presence of chloride in solution. Due to its conspicuousness it is easily used in titration, which gives the typical case of argentometry.

The solubility product, Ksp, for AgCl in water is ×10−10 at room temperature, which indicates that only &#;mg (that is, {\displaystyle {\sqrt {\times 10^{}}}\ \mathrm {mol} }) of AgCl will dissolve per liter of water. The chloride content of an aqueous solution can be determined quantitatively by weighing the precipitated AgCl, which conveniently is non-hygroscopic, since AgCl is one of the few transition metal chlorides that is unreactive toward water. Interfering ions for this test are bromide and iodide, as well as a variety of ligands (see silver halide). For AgBr and AgI, the Ksp values are x 10−13 and x 10−17, respectively. Silver bromide (slightly yellowish white) and silver iodide (bright yellow) are also significantly more photosensitive than is AgCl.

AgCl quickly darkens on exposure to light by disintegrating into elemental chlorine and metallic silver. This reaction is used in photography and film.

Uses[edit]

  • The silver chloride electrode is a common reference electrode in electrochemistry.
  • Silver chloride's low solubility makes it a useful addition to pottery glazes for the production of "Inglaze lustre".
  • Silver chloride has been used as an antidote for mercury poisoning, assisting in the elimination of mercury.
  • Silver chloride is used:
    • to make photographic paper since it reacts with photons to form latent image and via photoreduction
    • in photochromic lenses, again taking advantage of its reversible conversion to Ag metal
    • in bandages and wound healing products
    • to create yellow, amber, and brown shades in stained glass manufacture
    • as an infrared transmissive optical component as it can be hot-pressed into window and lens shapes[5]
    • as an antimicrobial agent:
      • in some personal deodorant products
      • for long-term preservation of drinking water in water tanks

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Salts and covalent derivatives of the chloride ion

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silver_chloride
Make Chlorine Gas (fixed)

The diagram above shows the elements in silver hypochlorite. It has one excess electron, giving it the negative charge. For example: To achieve 5 mg/L chlorine in a litre tank add approximately 8 grams of 65% calcium hypochlorite. What is the time signature of the song Atin Cu Pung Singsing? and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school.

imaginable degree, area of How Does Acid Rain Affect Humans & Animals? Product Classification | Determining the molar mass of a compound involves using its chemical formula to determine how many of each element are in the compound. The amount of chlorine required to be Silver Cyanate: Structure, Properties & Formula, Over 83, lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, Silver Carbonate: Chemical Formula & Solubility, Silver Oxide: Formula, Decomposition & Formation, What is Silver Sulfide? This means that one mole of silver hypochlorite has a mass grams. HClO (aq) + AgNO3 (aq) → AgClO (aq) + HNO3 (aq). The new team members get along famously. Print Silver Hypochlorite: Formula, Solubility & Molar Mass Worksheet 1. This value is represented in grams-per-mole (g/mole). Based on their interviews, the supervisor pairs the four employees into two teams. Hypochlorous acid, HClO (aq), reacts with silver nitrate, AgNO3 (aq), to produce silver hypochlorite, AgClO (aq) and nitric acid, HNO3 (aq). The whole number above the element's symbol is its atomic number. Silver hypochlorite is very soluble (stays as ions in water) and very unstable. study Decisions Revisited: Why Did You Choose a Public or Private College? Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time? Ano ang Imahinasyong guhit na naghahati sa daigdig sa magkaibang araw? To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. Create your account, Already registered? Study.com has thousands of articles about every How much does does a dollar roblox gift card get you in robhx? - Chemical Formula & Uses, Silver Sulfide: Solubility & Conductivity, Silver Fulminate: Solubility, Reaction & Synthesis, Organic & Inorganic Compounds Study Guide, Biological and Biomedical {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons This is an analogy for what happens with silver hypochlorite. credit by exam that is accepted by over 1, colleges and universities. This means that one mole of silver hypochlorite has a mass grams.

To calculate grams of 65% calcium hypochlorite (granular or powdered chlorine) required to disinfect the water in a tank. © copyright Study.com. Select a subject to preview related courses: Total Molar Mass of Compound = g/mole + g/mole + g/mole = g/mole. In chemistry, hypochlorite is an anion with the chemical formula ClO −. silver p-bromophenylcyanomethylenenitronate. Selling Leads | Pagkakaiba ng pagsulat ng ulat at sulating pananaliksik? The hypochlorite ion includes a chlorine atom and an oxygen atom that share electrons in a covalent bond. Biologically Active Compounds | He has taught high school chemistry and physics for 14 years. g/mole. Since both ions are oppositely charged, they stick together, forming AgClO. {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | Silver is a metallic ion, Ag+1, and hypochlorite is the polyatomic ion, ClO | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} Ano ang pinakamaliit na kontinente sa mundo? You can test out of the It combines with a number of cations to form hypochlorites , which may also be regarded as the salts of hypochlorous acid . The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Please note the above calculations are only estimates. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree. How long will the footprints on the moon last? Imagine a supervisor at a business hires four new employees. The quantity of each element in the compound is multiplied by its respective molar mass off the periodic table. When did organ music become associated with baseball? MSDS/SDS Database Search | It immediately decomposes into aqueous silver chlorate, AgClO3 (aq), and the insoluble silver chloride, AgCl (s). It is very soluble (stays as ions in water). In this lesson, we will determine its chemical formula, its solubility, and its molar mass. Since silver hypochlorite is so unstable, it immediately decomposes into insoluble silver chloride and aqueous silver chlorate. credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. How Does Acid Rain Affect Plants & Plant Growth? Hypochlorite is often used as a chemical reagent for chlorination and oxidation reactions. Copyright © Multiply Media, LLC. If you are 13 years old when were you born? Log in here for access. Home | Hypochlorite is an ion composed of chlorine and oxygen with the chemical formula ClO−. The chemical formula for silver(I) oxide is Ag2O.The chemical formula for silver(II) oxide is AgO. Matthew has a Master of Arts degree in Physics Education. How Do I Use Study.com's Assign Lesson Feature? Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams.

The number in red below the element's symbol is its atomic mass, or molar mass. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. All rights reserved. Service | Get access risk-free for 30 days, It is a very unstable compound and breaks apart, forming new compounds. Silver hypochlorite is an ionic compound that exists between a silver ion and a hypochlorite ion. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal They begin working and immediately the team members don't get along. About Us | silver hypochlorite CAS Number: Molecular Weight: Density: N/A: Boiling Point: N/A: Molecular Formula: AgClO: Melting Point: N/A: MSDS: N/A Flash Point: N/A What is the formula for hypochlorite? Molar Mass: Does Jerry Seinfeld have Parkinson's disease? Let's make a chart showing the quantity of each element in silver hypochlorite, their molar masses, and the total molar mass of each element in the compound. What is a product of the reaction between hypochlorus acid and silver nitrate, HClO (aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) → ? Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Anyone can earn Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? Services.

's' : ''}}. Total Molar Mass of Compound = g/mole + g/mole + g/mole = g/mole. Did you know… We have over college What is the hink-pink for blue green moray? Silver Hypochlorite. just create an account. Even though silver hypochlorite doesn't exist long, let's calculate its molar mass. Silver hypochlorite is formed along with nitric acid. Buying Leads |

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