How do you get exalted with Operation Shieldwall?
How do you get exalted with Operation Shieldwall?
If you go to your reputations tab and choose Operation: Shieldwall to get rep from it whenever you do dungeons, you can do a random Cataclysm, Cataclysm Heroic, Hour of Twilight Heroic or Mists of Pandaria dungeon to get 300 extra rep from each if you are on lvl 81-90.
How do you unlock dominance offensive?
To unlock this quest hub, pick up Meet the Scout. This automatically shows up in your log when in Vale of Eternal Blossoms. From there, you’ll complete The Might of the Warchief with Garrosh Hellscream, and then unlock Domination Point by signalling the Horde fleet in Domination Point.
How do you enter the little patience scenario?
Comment by Nieriel. You find it through the Dungeon Finder. Click on the Dungeon Finder icon in your Action Bar or the letter I (eye), then click on Scenarios (left side). Click the check box for A Little Patience and there you go.
How do you get exalted with dominance offensive?
– Have your main complete the main story line quests but you don’t turn them in yet. – Then hit revered with your alt and buy the Grand Commendation of the Dominance Offensive (They will be faster @ revered because they did turn in the main storyline quests.)
How do you get a grand Wyvern?
They are available through the new Operation Shieldwall/Dominance Offensive factions, the Grand mounts from completing achievements and the Grand Armored mounts from purchasing at exalted reputation for 1800g, 1600 with the guild perk.
How do you get the grand armored Wyvern?
You can purchase this mount, Grand Armored Wyvern, from Tuskripper Grukna for 1,800 gold once you reach exalted with the Dominance Offensive. It can be used as a ground mount or a flying mount. It is available to Horde characters only. The Alliance version is Grand Armored Gryphon.
How do you get exalted with Sunreaver onslaught?
As with most Mists of Pandaria factions, reputation with the Sunreaver Onslaught is mainly gained by completing daily quests. These quests are found on the Isle of Thunder and while not identical, are very similar for both the Sunreaver Onslaught and the Kirin Tor Offensive.
Where is the August Celestials Quartermaster?
Sage Whiteheart is a representative of and quartermaster for the August Celestials sent to the Shrine of Seven Stars to enlist Alliance aid. He can be found on the lower level of the Summer Terrace.
How do I get the Thundering August cloud serpent?
The August Celestials Mounts Reins of the Thundering August Cloud Serpent – You can get this mount upon hitting Exalted Reputation with The August Celestials, this Mount normally costs 10,000 gold but if you have it costs 7,000 gold.
How do I get rep with the August Celestials?
Gaining Reputation. Gaining reputation with The August Celestials is done through questing. Players will be sent to one of the four temples after asking the Quartermaster where help is needed the most.
How do I get exalted with Klaxxi?
To grind rep with The Klaxxi, you’ll have to do a long questline in Dread Wastes. This should get you to Honored, where there are at least 6 quests available from the Klaxxi Elders you freed. At Revered, you free two more Elders, who give you additional daily quests.
How do I unlock Klaxxi dailies?
To unlock dailies with The Klaxxi, you’ll have to do a long questline in Dread Wastes starting with Psycho Mantid. This should get you to Honored at least. Dread Amber Shards have a low chance to drop from any mob in Dread Wastes. Five can be turned in for Seeds of Fear and 250 reputation.
What is a golden lotus?
For centuries, millions chased the “golden lotus,” three-inch feet that’s considered the most desirable for women. To achieve the smallest possible size, foot binding began as early as five or six years old. Young girls had their feet soaked in hot water, then toenails were cut short.
Where is the Golden Lotus Quartermaster?
the Vale of Eternal Blossoms
Patch 5.1 Alliance Daily Quests – Operation: Shieldwall
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Operation: Shieldwall is the code name given to the Alliance campaign inside of Pandaria. Led by King Varian Wrynn and High Marshal Twinbraid, the forces of Operation: Shieldwall are the front line against the war against the Horde that unfortunately spilled over into Pandaria after the demise of Deathwing. With tensions at an all time high following the conflict at the Wrathgate, the two factions managed to put aside their differences temporarily against a common enemy in Deathwing. With his defeat came a renewed conflict between the two groups. During this campaign, the island of Pandaria became deshrouded and became home to a new conflict bewteen the two factions.
Each day, you gain access to one daily quest chain. Each quest awards 150 reputation points.
The Beastmaster Quests are group quests that can be completed each day, awarding 200 reputation points.
Work order quests involve planting specific crops in your garden. They award 300 reputation points each.
Operation: Shieldwall / Dominance Offensive Achievement
Here you can buy World of Warcraft (WoW) Operation: Shieldwall / Dominance Offensive Achievement boost.
- In case of Operation: Shieldwall option, the booster will earn Exalted status with Operation: Shieldwall for you;
- In case of Dominance Offensive option, the booster will earn Exalted status with the Dominance Offensive for you;
- You will getOperation: ShieldwallorDominance Offensiveachievement (depends on your faction);
- Boost takes 3-5 weeks;
- All reagents/items/gold that we got during your boost we will leave in your bags;
We don’t use programs or bots in our work. All orders are done by hand. We can stream the progress of your boost or provide screenshots at your request.
The boost will be done in Piloted mode. One of our team will play for you. You will be able to watch your character via stream. We will use the VPN of your country.
Level 60 character. Use our Powerleveling service if you don’t meet this requirement.
We will need access to your account for some meaningful amount of time to work on your order. The account will be occupied while we work.
Please disconnect the Battle.net Authenticator or disable the "always require authenticator for login" setting in Security Settings. Your account will be protected by the secret question for the duration of your boost. Don't forget to re-enable it once we're complete the service.
Wall operation shield
Table of Contents
Operation: Shieldwall is an in-game event released in Patch 5.1. It recounts the establishment of Lion's Landing (the first Alliance settlement on Pandaria) in eastern Krasarang Wilds. Operation: Shieldwall is also the name of the Alliance faction that you will interact with at Lion's Landing.
As the event progresses (i.e., as your reputation increases through doing daily quests), you will be given short quest lines that contain a lot of lore information regarding the events that will eventually lead to the combined Alliance-Horde assault on Orgrimmar to dislodge Garrosh Hellscream from power (the culminating battle of the Mists of Pandaria expansion, which was announced at Blizzcon 2011).
Operation: Shieldwall starts by Meet the Scout, a quest automatically given to level 90 players on Pandaria. After a short introductory quest line, where you will witness the arrival of King Varian Wrynn on Pandaria and the construction of Lion's Landing, you will be able to start doing daily quests and increase your reputation with Operation: Shieldwall.
As your standing with the Operation: Shieldwall faction increases, you will be given short quest lines to complete. They usually contain a lot of lore information, which we chose not to detail here to avoid spoiling your experience.
Operation: Shieldwall and Dominance Offensive, its Horde counterpart, have been touted as a World PvP Event. In reality, World PvP is limited to taking a few objectives that grant useful (but nowhere near mandatory) buffs to players of the holding faction. See our dedicated section for more information.
There are a number of rewards associated with the event, mainly a mount and new Valor Point gear.
We estimate that it will take a month worth of daily quests to reach exalted reputation with Operation: Shieldwall.
You can speed up the process by doing the Operation: Shieldwall Work Order at your farm (see our Tillers guide).
Grand Commendation of Operation: Shieldwall
As soon as you reach revered reputation with Operation: Shieldwall, make sure to purchase the Grand Commendation of Operation: Shieldwall from the faction quartermaster. Using this item will allow you to reach exalted reputation much faster.
Champion A Faction
In order to increase your reputation gains with Operation: Shieldwall, you can choose to champion them in the reputation tab of your character panel. This will cause you to gain addition reputation when doing various activities, but mostly through running Heroic dungeons and scenarios.
In addition to the gear, which we describe next, you can earn a few rewards.
Grand Armored Gryphon is a mount sold by Agent Malley for 2000 , after you reach exalted reputation with Operation: Shieldwall.
Grand Gryphon is a flying mount that you receive as a reward for the final quest of the chain (once you have reached exalted reputation).
Grand Commendation of Operation: Shieldwall unlocks a 100% reputation gain on your other characters. This item can be bought for 50 from Agent Malley, after you reach revered reputation with Operation: Shieldwall.
Operation: Shieldwall Campaign is an achievement that you will earn after doing all the quest lines that will be offered to you as your reputation increases. Presumably, it will require you to reach exalted reputation.
I'm In Your Base, Killing Your Dudes is an achievement that you will earn after killing all three Horde Champions in Domination Point. See our section on rare elites, for more information.
All the gear is sold by Agent Malley, the Operation: Shieldwall quartermaster. Reputation requirements are the following:
- items that cost 1,750 require no reputation;
- items that cost 1,250 require honored reputation.
- items that cost 1,750 require revered reputation.
|Item Name||Armor||Slot||Main Stats||Cost|
|Bon-iy's Unbreakable Cord||Cloth||Waist||Intellect/Hit||1,750|
|Sandals of Oiled Silk||Cloth||Feet||Intellect/Hit||1,750|
|Sash of Bouncing Power||Cloth||Waist||Intellect/Spirit||1,750|
|Statue Summoner's Treads||Leather||Feet||Intellect||1,750|
|Prevenge's Swashbuckling Cinch||Leather||Waist||Agility||1,750|
|Links of Bonded Blood||Waist||Intellect||1,750|
|Chain of Flaming Arrows||Waist||Agility||1,750|
|Divide's Loyal Clasp||Plate||Waist||Intellect||1,750|
|Greatboots of Flashing Light||Plate||Feet||Intellect||1,750|
|Girdle of Crushing Strength||Plate||Waist||Strength/Mastery||1,750|
|Waistplate of Immobility||Plate||Waist||Strength/Parry||1,750|
|Sabatons of the Sullied Shore||Plate||Feet||Strength/Parry||1,750|
Rings and Trinkets
|Item Name||Type||Main Stats||Cost|
|Band of the Shieldwall||Ring||Intellect||1,250|
|Loop of the Shieldwall||Ring||Intellect/Spirit||1,250|
|Arcane Badge of the Shieldwall||Trinket||Intellect/Haste on Use||1,750|
|Shock-Charger Medallion||Trinket||Haste/Intellect on Use||1,750|
|Mending Badge of the Shieldwall||Trinket||Intellect/Spirit on Use||1,750|
|Heartwarmer Medallion||Trinket||Intellect/Spirit on Use||1,750|
|Signet of the Shieldwall||Ring||Agility||1,250|
|Deadeye Badge of the Shieldwall||Trinket||Agility/Mastery on Use||1,750|
|Arrowflight Medallion||Trinket||Agility/Crit on Use||1,750|
|Circle of the Shieldwall||Ring||Strength||1,250|
|Knightly Badge of the Shieldwall||Trinket||Strength/Mastery on Use||1,750|
|Helmbreaker Medallion||Trinket||Strength/Crit on Use||1,750|
|Seal of the Shieldwall||Ring||Strength/Dodge||1,250|
|Durable Badge of the Shieldwall||Trinket||Dodge/Mastery on Use||1,750|
|Vaporshield Medallion||Trinket||Dodge/Mastery on Use||1,750|
As you progress through the event, you will unlock small quest lines. Each quest line completes an objective of the Operation: Shieldwall Campaign achievement.
The Lion's Landing objective of Operation: Shieldwall Campaign is completed during the introductory quest line. The introductory quest line is started by Meet the Scout and continues with A King Among Men and Lion's Landing.
After an impressive cut scene, Lion's Landing will be built and you will be able to activate the flight point there.
Also, you will receive A Little Patience, which sends you to the A Little Patience scenario. This quest seems to have no bearing on the Operation: Shieldwall event, but we encourage you to do the scenario.
The Man With a Thousand Faces
After reaching 1,000 friendly reputation, you will be given The Best Around by Admiral Taylor at Lion's Landing. This quest requires you to go to the Brawler's Guild arena in Stormwind City where you will be given To Catch A Spy, followed by Professor Kilt.
To complete To Catch A Spy, offer the first drink (Pink Marmot) to Keith "The Party" Westin, the second drink (Rusty Dagger) to Twix Gearspark, and the third drink (Mogu Melon Twist) to Tasha Windpaw.
Completing Professor Kilt will complete the The Man With a Thousand Faces objective of Operation: Shieldwall Campaign. After a few days, you will receive a mail from Agent Connelly informing you that he is now on Pandaria.
The Voice of Gods
After reaching 5,000 friendly reputation, you will be offered He's In Deep by Admiral Taylor at Lion's Landing. This quest will be followed by Bugging Out and He Won't Even Miss It from Cousin Goottooth in Kun-Lai Summit (Cousin Goottooth is actually Agent Connelly in disguise).
Completing these quests will complete the The Voice of the Gods objective of Operation: Shieldwall Campaign.
After reaching 3,000 honored reputation, you will be offered The Kirin Tor by Admiral Taylor at Lion's Landing. After reaching the Purple Parlor, talking to Jaina, and turning in the quest, Anduin will give you The Fate of Dalaran.
Completing The Fate of Dalaran will complete the Jaina's Hope objective of Operation: Shieldwall Campaign.
After reaching 6,500 honored reputation, you will be offered To Mogujia by Admiral Taylor at Lion's Landing. After reaching Brann and turning in To Mogujia, you will be given two quests: The Source of Korune Power and Bad Blood.
Completing these two quests will complete the The Korune objective of Operation: Shieldwall Campaign.
Heart of the Alliance
After reaching 10,800 honored reputation, you will be given Anduin's Plea by Admiral Taylor at Lion's Landing, which is followed by Heart Of The Alliance (at the Shrine of Seven Stars). Completing this latter quest completes the Heart of the Alliance objective of Operation: Shieldwall Campaign.
Secrets of the Past
After reaching 2,700 revered reputation, you will be given The Kun-Lai Expedition by Admiral Taylor at Lion's Landing. After handing in The Kun-Lai Expedition in Kun-Lai summit, you will be given A Kor'kron In Our Midst, which is followed by Memory Wine. Completing the latter quest completes the Secrets of the Past objective of Operation: Shieldwall Campaign.
The Divine Bell
After reaching 6,900 revered reputation, you will be given The Ruins of Korune by Admiral Taylor at Lion's Landing. After handing in The Ruins of Korune in Kun-Lai summit, you will be given The Divine Bell. Completing this second quest completes the The Divine Bell objective of Operation: Shieldwall Campaign.
The Purge of Dalaran
After reaching 8,700 revered reputation, you will be given Darnassus Attacked? by Admiral Taylor at Lion's Landing. After handing in Darnassus Attacked? in Darnassus, you will be given Tracking the Thieves by Lady Jaina Proudmoore, which is followed by Jaina's Resolution. Completing Jaina's Resolution will open up 5 new quests:
Finally, you will be given What Had To Be Done by Vereesa Windrunner, who will also provide you with transportation back to Lion's Landing (speak to her).
After completing this final quest, you will complete the The Purge of Dalaran objective of Operation: Shieldwall Campaign.
An Ancient Ally
After reaching 14,600 revered reputation, you will be given The Harmonic Mallet by Admiral Taylor at Lion's Landing. After handing in this quest to Prince Anduin, he will give you The Monkey King. Completing this quest will open up three new quests:
All these quests are to be handed in to the Monkey King in Lion's Landing, not in Kun-Lai Summit, where he gives them to you. Keep this in mind when you do the quests, as your first reflex will be to go back to Kun-Lai Summit to complete them.
At Lion's Landing, you will be given The Greatest Prank. Completing it will complete the An Ancient Ally objective of Operation: Shieldwall Campaign.
In Search of Harmony
After reaching 18,500 revered reputation, you will be given three quests by the Monkey King in Lion's Landing:
Completing these quests will complete the In Search of Harmony objective of Operation: Shieldwall Campaign.
Breath of Darkest Shadow
After reaching exalted reputation, you will be given The Bell Speaks by Admiral Taylor at Lion's Landing. Anduin will then give you Breath of Darkest Shadow. Finally, you will be given The Silence. Completing it will reward you with a Grand Gryphon and will complete the Breath of Darkest Shadow objective of Operation: Shieldwall Campaign.
World PvP Objective
The World PvP objectives will appear on your map as soon as you complete the introductory quest line. There are 6 objectives and if your faction holds them, you receive a buff or a perk when you are in their vicinity. These buffs/perks can be very useful during the daily quests.
For the Area of Effect, you will find a precise map of the locations in the daily quest section.
To take an objective, simply flag yourself for PvP, go to the objective and stand your ground there until the objective becomes yours.
Domination Point Commissions and Related Perks
When killing Horde NPCs in Krasarang Wilds, you will loot Domination Point Commissions, which you can use to buy a number of items from Proveditor Grantley at Lion's Landing.
Proveditor Grantley sells 3 items (for 30 Domination Point Commissions each) that you can use to start chains of daily quests. Each chain rewards a total of 200 reputation and consists of 3 quests. The first quest requires you to gather some items. The second quest makes you use the items you gathered to lay a trap for capturing a wild animal. The third quest is given after you defeat the wild animal. Turning in the third quest will give you a small damage buff.
You can only do one quest chain per day.
Ancient Bloodcrown Crane
Sturdy Crane Snare starts Beastmaster's Hunt: The Crane, which is followed by Beastmaster's Quarry: The Crane. After turning in this second quest to Huntsman Blake, you will be able to ask him to fight the Ancient Bloodcrown Crane that you have just brought him. If you defeat the Crane, Huntsman Blake will give you Ancient's Fall. Upon turning in this last quest, you will be rewarded with 200 reputation and Presence of the Crane will be cast on you (it lasts 30 minutes).
Sturdy Tiger Trap starts Beastmaster's Hunt: The Tiger, which is followed by Beastmaster's Quarry: The Tiger. After turning in this second quest to Huntsman Blake, you will be able to ask him to fight the Elder Krasari that you have just brought him. If you defeat the Tiger, Huntsman Blake will give you End of an Elder. Upon turning in this last quest, you will be rewarded with 200 reputation and Presence of the Tiger will be cast on you (it lasts 30 minutes).
Sturdy Crab Crate starts Beastmaster's Hunt: The Crab, which is followed by Beastmaster's Quarry: The Crab. After turning in this second quest to Huntsman Blake, you will be able to ask him to fight the Colossal Viseclaw that you have just brought him. If you defeat the Crab, Huntsman Blake will give you A Colossal Victory. Upon turning in this last quest, you will be rewarded with 200 reputation and Presence of the Crab will be cast on you (it lasts 30 minutes).
You do not need to do the initial quests to get the last quest that finally rewards reputation. What you can do is wait at the arena that a group engage one of the elites. Then, simply attack the elite with them. When it will die, you will be given the final quest, even if you did not do the other quests.
For 5 Domination Point Commissions, you can buy a portal to:
Portals appear next to the portal NPC, who is located right next to the vendors.
For 10 Domination Point Commissions, you can buy an item that you can use to summon an NPC that will buff nearby Alliance players. You can only use this item in Lion's Landing and the NPCs will be summoned near the Lion's Landing daily quest givers. If an NPC is already present, there is no need to re-summon it. The buffs given only work in Krasarang Wilds. See the table below for more details.
In addition, you can buy a Lion's Landing Banquet for 30 Domination Point Commissions. It will appear next to the vendors and will grant Alliance players who eat from it +250 to their main statistic in Krasarang Wilds.
To help defend the World PvP Objectives that your faction is currently holding, you can hire guards. To do so, you must be near the objective and use the item that corresponds to the objective.
A Crate of Alliance Banners can be bought for 25 Domination Point Commissions. We have yet to determine what these banners do.
Box of Overridden Excavationbots can be bought for 125 Domination Point Commissions and contain Overridden Excavationbots, which you can use to fight at your side.
Obelisk of Deception costs 500 Domination Point Commissions and Rodent Crate costs 2,000 Domination Point Commissions. We have yet to determine what these items do.
As you can see in the image below, there are four different questing locations. Each day, you will receive your daily quests (or an introductory quest leading to them) from NPCs next to the Flight Master in Lion's Landing. You will always complete a total of 5 daily quests awarding reputation, for a total reputation gain of 900.
Each daily quest rewards 5 and 2 Lesser Charms of Good Fortune.
For Siege Damage and Tower Defense, simply go to the quarry and kill the Bilgewater Goblins until you get the required quest items.
Ruins of Ogudei
When the Ruins of Ogudei are the questing location of the day, Marshal Troteman will first give you Priorities, People!. Once at the ruins, you will be able to get the following quests.
For It Is A Mystery, the anomaly is randomly located in one of the small recesses marked in green in the image below. To disperse the anomaly, simply stand at its location. In red, we marked the locations of the Ogudei's Lieutenants.
For Oi Ain't Afraid o' No Ghosts!, you will need to attack pairs of Spiritbound Arcanists and Spiritbound Brutalizers. Both units share a health pool and we advise you to focus on the Brutalizer, as the Arcanist only does a sort of Shadow Nova-type of attack that you can easily avoid.
When the Bilgewater Operations are the questing location of the day, Amber Kearnen at Lion's Landing will first give you And Then There Were Goblins. This quest will send you to the Skyfire (remember to use Portal Reagents: Skyfire to get there faster) where you will be given your daily quests.
For Dis-Assembly Required, make sure to use the Re-Configured Remote, which is provided for the quest, on the Jungle Shredders before attempting to kill them.
When Domination Point is the questing location of the day, Amber Kearnen at Lion's Landing will first give you Send A Message. This quest will send you to the Skyfire (remember to use Portal Reagents: Skyfire to get there faster) where you will be given your daily quests.
For the A Kind of Magic quest, you will need to locate small robots in Domination Point. Even with the quest markers on your map, it may prove difficult to find them, so we have included screenshots of them.
For the Under Pressure quest, you will find many Horde Supply Crates in the Alliance-controlled docks south of Dominance Point.
In Dominance Point, you will find three rare elites:
When killing one of these NPCs, you will have a chance to loot:
Killing all three NPCs will grant you the I'm In Your Base, Killing Your Dudes achievement.
If you have read us this far, we would like to thank you for the time you spent on the site and we hope that the guide brought you all the information you needed.
- 16 Jul. 2013: Added section on championing a faction.
- 15 Apr. 2013: Added mention of Tillers Work Orders.
The Reapers are targeting our training centers, and your mission is to draw their fire and attention. Put them on the defensive! Buy us time, and the reinforcements in training will soon back you up.
Allied Goal: Promote 50,000 characters.
Squad Goal: Promote 3 characters.
Special Circumstance: Due to the failure of Operation SILENCER, more banshees will spawn with Reaper enemies and might also spawn with other enemies.
Squad Goal Success: Squad members awarded a Commendation Pack.
Allied Goal Success: All players awarded a Victory Pack (high chance of containing a Rare weapon).
Welcome to the next N7 Weekend Operation, Operation SHIELDWALL, beginning this Friday, May 25 at 6:00PM PT until Sunday, May 27 at 5:00PM PT, on PlayStation 3, Xbox 360 and PC. Please remember to set the “Upload Gameplay Feedback” setting to “On” in the online options to be able to participate in this N7 Operation.
Please note that due to a known issue, PlayStation 3 users will not see the promotion screen but they will be participating in Operation SHIELDWALL and will be rewarded.
Keep up the pressure, troopers. As you can see, N7 efforts to date have been bringing the fight right to the front door of our enemy. Our enemy is fierce, but we’ve got the might of the entire galaxy on our side.
Good luck and see you on the battlefield.
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Operation Defensive Shield
2002 Israeli military operation
Operation "Defensive Shield" (Hebrew: מִבְצָע חוֹמַת מָגֵן, Mivtza Homat Magen, literally "Operation Shield Wall") was a large-scale military operation conducted by the Israel Defense Forces in 2002 during the Second Intifada. It was the largest military operation in the West Bank since the 1967 Six-Day War. The stated goal of the operation was to stop terrorist attacks. The operation was a direct response to the Passover massacre on March 27 at the Park Hotel in the Israeli resort city of Netanya when a Palestinian suicide bomber killed 30 vacationers.
Operation Defensive Shield began on March 29, 2002, with an incursion into Ramallah placing Yasser Arafat under siege in his Ramallah compound, followed by incursions into the six largest cities in the West Bank, and their surrounding localities. The Israel Defense Forces invaded Tulkarm and Qalqilya on April 1, Bethlehem the next day, Jenin and Nablus the next. From April 3–21, the period was characterized by strict curfews on civilian populations and restrictions of movement of international personnel, including at times prohibition of entry to humanitarian and medical personnel as well as human rights monitors and journalists.
In May 2002, the Israeli troops had pulled out of the Palestinian cities, but maintained cordons of troops around West Bank towns and villages, and continued carrying out raids on Palestinian areas.
The UN report on the subject says, "Combatants on both sides conducted themselves in ways that, at times, placed civilians in harm's way. Much of the fighting during Operation "Defensive Shield" occurred in areas heavily populated by civilians and in many cases heavy weaponry was used."
The Israeli–Palestinian conflict escalated during the Second Intifada. In January and February 2002, 71 people were killed on all sides during attacks from Palestinian terrorists and the Israeli army. March and April 2002 saw a dramatic increase in attacks against Israelis by Palestinian militants such as Hamas, Islamic Jihad and the Fatah-affiliated Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades. In addition to numerous shooting and grenade attacks, fifteen suicide bombings were carried out in March, an average of one suicide bombing every two days. March 2002 became known in Israel as "Black March". The large number of attacks severely disrupted daily life in Israel.
The first wave of Israeli incursions took place between 27 February and 14 March. Following nine attacks by Palestinian militants between March 2–5, the Israeli cabinet decided to massively expand its military activity against these groups. On March 5, while talking with reporters in the Knesset cafeteria, Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, pointing to the bloodiest week against Israelis since the start of the Second Intifada, explained the cabinet's decision: "The Palestinians must be hit, and it must be very painful. ... We must cause them losses, victims, so that they feel a heavy price."
Palestinian attacks continued, with suicide bombings on 9 March (see Café Moment bombing), 20 March, and 21 March. Shooting and grenade attacks also continued to occur in Israel and Israeli settlements. On 27 March, a suicide attack occurred in Netanya, where 30 people were killed in the Park Hotel while celebrating Passover. The event became known as the Passover massacre. The following day, a Palestinian gunman infiltrated the Israeli settlement of Elon Moreh and killed four members of the same family.
On March 29, the Israeli government announced Operation "Defensive Shield", terming it a large-scale counter-terrorist offensive. The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) issued emergency call-up notices for 30,000 reserve soldiers, the largest call-up since the 1982 Lebanon War. The same day, two Israelis were stabbed in the Gaza settlement of Netzarim. Two suicide bombings occurred the next day, and another one took place the day after that.
Overall, in March 2002, some 130 Israelis including approximately 100 noncombatants were killed in Palestinian attacks, while a total of 238 Palestinians including at least 83 noncombatants were killed in the same month by the IDF.
The stated goals of the operation (as conveyed to the Israeli Knesset by Prime Minister Ariel Sharon on April 8, 2002) were "to catch and arrest terrorists and, primarily, their dispatchers and those who finance and support them; to confiscate weapons intended to be used against Israeli citizens; to expose and destroy facilities and explosives, laboratories, weapons production factories and secret installations. The orders are clear: target and paralyze anyone who takes up weapons and tries to oppose our troops, resists them or endangers them—and to avoid harming the civilian population." IDF officers also noted that incursions would force Palestinian militants "to exert their energy by defending their homes in the camps instead of by plotting attacks on Israelis."
The Palestinian attachment to the UN report on Operation "Defensive Shield" challenged the validity of the Israeli claim that it was targeting "terrorists," noting that, "[...] the record shows clearly that the nature of the actions taken, the amount of harm inflicted on the population and the practical results prove completely different political goals [...] the Israeli occupying forces have consistently targeted the Palestinian police and security forces, instead of 'terrorists', and have consistently tried to destroy the Palestinian Authority and declared it an 'enemy', instead of groups hostile to peace in the Middle East."
Operation "Defensive Shield" was announced on March 29, but it is widely assumed preparations began nearly a month before. In early April, the IDF was conducting major military operations inside all Palestinian cities, but the majority of the fighting centered on Bethlehem, Jenin, Nablus, and Ramallah. Over 20,000 Israeli reservists were activated during the conflict.
See also: Battle of Jenin (2002)
According to Israeli authorities, Jenin became a central base for terror groups and terror attacks mounted by several organizations, including Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, and Hamas. The IDF spokesman attributed 23 of the 60 suicide bombers that attacked Israel in 2002 to Palestinians from Jenin.
On April 2, more than 1,000 IDF soldiers entered the camp, calling civilians and non-combatants to leave. An estimated 13,000 Palestinians were housed in Jenin prior to the operation.
The operation was led by the 5th Infantry Brigade, which had not yet been trained in close-quarters combat. During a series of sweeps, the Israeli military claimed the entire camp was booby-trapped. At least 2,000 bombs and booby traps were planted throughout the camp. In response to the discovery, the Israelis dispatched combat bulldozers to detonate any bombs that were placed in the streets.
Israeli commanders were still not confident that soldiers would be safe from booby traps and IEDs. A rapid ground attack would clearly be costly in IDF lives, but political pressure from the United States and elsewhere required a rapid end to the fighting. Former defense minister Shaul Mofaz promised combat-operations would be over by April 6, but that was clearly impossible. The IDF slowly advanced into the city, encountering fierce resistance. Most of the fighting was conducted by infantry fighting house-to-house, while armored bulldozers were used to clear away booby traps and IEDs. Air support was limited to helicopter gunships firing wire-guided missiles. Palestinian commander Mahmoud Tawalbe was killed during the battle. According to a British military expert, he was killed by an Israeli bulldozer, while the Palestinians claimed that blew himself up to collapse a house on Israeli soldiers.
On the third day of operations, an IDF unit accidentally wandered into a Palestinian ambush. Thirteen Israeli soldiers were killed and three of the bodies were captured before a Shayetet 13 naval commando unit could retrieve them.
After the ambush, the Israeli military developed a tactic that allowed units to advance farther and more safely into the camps. Israeli commanders would send an armored bulldozer to ram the corner of a house, creating a hole. An IDF Achzarit would then enter the hole, allowing troops to clear the house without going through booby-trapped doors. Palestinian resistance was halted following the adoption of the bulldozer method, and most residents of the Hawashin neighborhood surrendered before it was leveled. Palestinian commander Hazem Qabha refused to surrender and was killed.
Throughout the Battle of Jenin, and for a few days afterwards, the city and its refugee camp were under total closure. There was much concern at the time about possible human rights violations occurring in the camp. Allegations of a massacre in Jenin were spread by Palestinians in order to create pressure on Israel to halt the operation. Claims of complete destruction of the Jenin refugee camp, a massacre of 500 civilians, and mass graves being dug by Israeli soldiers were proven false after a United Nations investigation. Reports of a large-scale massacre were found to be untrue, a result of confusion resulting from the Israeli refusal to allow entry to outside observers, and/or Palestinian media manipulation.
Ultimately, the Jenin incursion resulted in the deaths of 52 Palestinians. According to Israel, five were civilians and the rest were militants. Human Rights Watch reported that 27 militants and 22 civilians, as well as three unidentified persons, had been killed, based mostly on witness interviews. Israeli losses totalled 23 soldiers killed and 75 wounded.
See also: Battle of Nablus
The IDF launched an incursion Nablus with two regular infantry brigades and one reserve armored brigade. The city was estimated to have held over 8,000 Palestinian militants, in addition to Palestinian security forces. Israeli forces quickly occupied most of the city. Clashes took place around refugee camps, and Israeli attack helicopters fired rockets at Palestinian positions in the main square and neighboring streets. The main attack focused on the Nablus Casbah. The Golani Brigade entered the Casbah, engaging the Palestinians in heavy street combat and using armored bulldozers and Achzarit APCs to clear away barricades. Many militants withdrew to the western part of the city, where they were attacked by the Paratroopers Brigade. Troops gradually moved into the city by destroying walls within houses to get into the next house (known as mouse-holing/Rhizome Manoeuvre), in order to avoid booby-trapped doors and road-side bombs. The paratroopers advanced by sending several small units to take over houses at the same time and confuse the Palestinians, and relied heavily on sniper units. Palestinian militants often exposed their positions by firing at Israeli forces in another direction. During the battle over 70 Palestinian militants were killed, while the IDF lost one officer to friendly fire. The Palestinians surrendered on April 8.
Nablus was placed under curfew on April 4, as the battle was beginning. The city remained under curfew until April 22. During the operation, the IDF arrested over 100 Palestinians and discovered several explosives laboratories. High-ranking wanted persons fled east to Tubas, and were arrested a week later.
See also: Siege of the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem
IDF forces including the Jerusalemite Reserve Infantry Brigade entered Jerusalem with infantry, warplanes, and tanks while a special forces Shaldag Unit targeted the Church of the Nativity to deny it to the people of Bethlehem as a place of refuge as it had been in the past. In response to the IDF offensive hundreds of Bethelemites including Bethlehem's Governor sought refuge in the church, the helicopters of the Shaldag unit arriving half an hour too late.
On April 3 the IDF laid siege to the church surrounding it with an elite paratrooper brigade specializing in sniper operations who used tactics including carrying out simulated attacks. The Vatican's top foreign policy expert Archbishop Jean-Louis Taura stated that while the Palestinians have joined the Vatican in bilateral agreements where they have undertaken to respect and maintain the status quo regarding Christian holy places and the rights of Christian communities, "to explain the gravity of the current situation, let me begin with the fact that the occupation of the holy places by armed men is a violation of a long tradition of law that dates back to the Ottoman era. Never before have they been occupied – for such a lengthy time – by armed men." For five weeks the Israelis held the city and church under curfew, with periodic breaks, continuing the siege on the church. Israeli snipers were given orders to shoot anyone in the church carrying a gun on sight, seriously wounding an Armenian monk who the IDF said looked armed, and killing the mentally impaired church bell-ringer who was shot as he left to ring the bells as he had done for 3 decades. He was left to die, bleeding in the square for hours. Six other men were killed by the IDF during the siege. On March 10 the siege ended, with a deal seeing some militants deported to the Gaza Strip, and the rest exiled to Cyprus.
See also: Arafat's Compound
IDF infantry and armor entered Ramallah on 29 March and entered the Mukataa, Yasser Arafat's presidential compound. The Israelis forced their way through the compound's perimeter and quickly occupied it. Arafat was given refuge in a few of the compound's rooms, along assorted advisors, security personnel and journalists. In an effort to isolate Arafat physically and diplomatically, access to the compound was restricted, and Arafat was not allowed to leave. The IDF occupied the city after several hours of street fighting in which some 30 Palestinians were killed. Ramallah was then placed under a tight curfew as soldiers conducted searches and made arrests. The IDF arrested more than 700 people, among them Marwan Barghouti, a top Palestinian militant leader suspected of directing numerous suicide bombings and other attacks against Israelis. Barghouti was later tried in Israel and sentenced to life imprisonment. The day after Marwan Barghouti's arrest, Taleb Barghouti was arrested.
On April 2, Israeli tanks and APCs surrounded the headquarters of the Preventive Security Force in nearby Beitunia as Israeli helicopter gunships flew overhead. Hundreds of heavily armed police officers and prisoners wanted by Israel were inside. Israeli troops used loudspeakers to announce that the compound's four buildings were to be destroyed and demand that everyone inside step out. Hundreds of police officers and fugitives emerged from the compound and surrendered to the Israeli army, and the facility was damaged by rockets. The Israelis extensively searched the facility and uncovered numerous incriminating documents, including a plan to recruit female Israeli soldiers as spies. Weapons stolen from the IDF were also discovered.
The Israelis forced the hundreds of policemen and fugitives who surrendered to strip naked, fearing that some were armed or packed with explosives. They were then given jumpsuits, loaded onto buses and taken to Ofer Prison. Shin Bet asked Jibril Rajoub, head of the Preventive Security Force, to point out which men were police officers and which were fugitives. Rajoub instead identified his policemen as fugitives and the fugitives as policemen, and the fugitives were all released. Shin Bet retaliated by releasing an official account that branded Rajoub as a traitor for turning over the fugitives in a CIA-brokered deal, costing Rajoub his job.
The UN report on the subject noted: "It was not only the Palestinian people whose movement was restricted during Operation "Defensive Shield". In many instances, humanitarian workers were not able to reach people in need to assess conditions and deliver necessary assistance because of the sealing of cities, refugee camps and villages during the operation. There were also cases of Israeli forces not respecting the neutrality of medical and humanitarian workers and attacking ambulances."
In reply to these complaints, the IDF stated that the curfew was placed in order to prevent civilians from being caught in gunfights and getting hurt. Palestinian ambulances were stopped for checks following the discovery of an explosive belt in a Red Crescentambulance.
IDF Reserve Paratroop Battalion 55 entered Tulkarm with armored support. Palestinian militants abandoned their weapons and melted into the local population, and nine were killed by the IDF. A Tegart fort that had served as their headquarters was destroyed by an Israeli airstrike. The IDF also raided nearby villages, arresting hundreds of wanted men.
On April 4, gendarmes from an Israel Border Police undercover unit surrounded a house in Hebron where a member of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades who supplied weapons to militants was holed up, along with his brother. The gendarmes demanded that the two men surrender. Shots were fired at the troops, killing one of the gendarmes. After a gun battle lasting several hours, troops stormed the house, discovering the suspect's wounded brother. The arms merchant was found to have fled.
European Union reaction
Spanish Foreign Minister Josep Piqué, whose country held the EU Presidency, said that "sanctions against Israel are a possible scenario", and that EU states were discussing the possibility, with some reluctant and others wanting to impose sanctions. Belgian Foreign Minister Louis Michel also said that the EU could rethink its trade relations with Israel. The European Parliament passed a non-binding resolution calling for economic sanctions on Israel, an arms embargo on both parties, and for the European Union to "suspend immediately" its trade and cooperation agreement with Israel. It condemned the "military escalation pursued by the Sharon government" and the "oppression of the Palestinian civilian population by the Israeli army", while also condemning suicide bombings. According to Yediot Aharonot, Israel's refusal to allow Spanish EU officials Javier Solana and Josep Piqué into the Mukataa to meet with Yasser Arafat, while allowing American envoy Anthony Zinni to enter, was the "straw that broke the camel's back". The resolution was passed by a vote of 269 to 208, with 22 abstentions.
See also: Israeli casualties of war and Palestinian casualties of war
During the fighting, 30 Israeli soldiers were killed and 127 were wounded, while 497 Palestinians were killed and 1,447 were wounded according to a United Nations investigation. However, B'Tselem only registered 240 Palestinians killed by Israeli security forces in the West Bank during the period in which the operation took place. Approximately 7,000 Palestinians were detained by Israel including 396 wanted suspects.
The World Bank estimated that over $361 million worth of damage was caused to Palestinian infrastructure and institutions, $158 million of which came from the aerial bombardment and destruction of houses in Nablus and Jenin.
The effects of Operation "Defensive Shield", as recorded by the Israeli Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center, were an initial drop in half (46 percent) in the number of suicide bombings – from 22 in February–March to 12 in April–May – and a 70 percent drop in executed attacks between the first half of 2002 and the second half (43 January–June, 13 July–December). While 2003 had a total of 25 executed suicide bombings in comparison to 56 in 2002, the main difference was the number of attacks which did not come to realization (184) either due to Israeli interception or problems in the execution. 2003 also saw a 35 percent drop in the number of fatalities from 220 deaths in 2002 to 142 deaths resulting from suicide bombings.
Beverly Milton-Edwards, Professor of Politics at Queen's University in Belfast, writes that while aspects of Palestinian terrorism were reduced after the operation, Israel's objective of ending the Al-Aqsa Intifada remained unmet. Israeli destruction of institutions belonging to the Palestinian Authority (PA) and the "emasculation" of the PA and its President, Yasser Arafat, opened a vacuum in the social and welfare system that was rapidly filled by the Hamas, whose popularity grew. Milton-Edwards concludes that, "The unequivocal victory [sought by Israel] eventually remained elusive and the Israelis and Palestinians resumed a variety of forms of low intensity warfare with each other."
Fact-finding and criticism
UN fact-finding mission
A UN fact-finding mission was established under UN Security Council Resolution 1405 (April 19, 2002) into Operation "Defensive Shield" following Palestinian charges that a massacre had occurred in Jenin, which later proved to be false. In its attachment to the UN report the Palestinian Authority decried Israel's "culture of impunity" and called for "an international presence to monitor compliance with international humanitarian law, to help in providing protection to Palestinian civilians and to help the parties to implement agreements reached."
A report of the European Union attached in the report stated, "The massive destruction, especially at the centre of the refugee camp, to which all heads of mission in Jerusalem and Ramallah can testify, shows that the site had undergone an indiscriminate use of force, that goes well beyond that of a battlefield."
The report states that there were numerous reports of the IDF using Palestinians as human shields. Israel denied the allegations.
Human rights groups
Human Rights Watch determined that "Israeli forces committed serious violations of international humanitarian law, some amounting prima facie to war crimes."
Amnesty International reported that war crimes occurred in the Jenin refugee camp and in Nablus, including: unlawful killings; a failure to ensure medical or humanitarian relief; demolition of houses and property occurred (sometime with civilians still inside); water and electricity supplies to civilians were cut; torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment in arbitrary detention occurred; and Palestinians civilians were used for military operations or as "human shields." According to Amnesty, "the IDF acted as though the main aim was to punish all Palestinians."
Destruction of Palestinian Authority property
The UN report noted that "United Nations agencies and other international agencies, when allowed into Ramallah and other Palestinian cities, documented extensive physical damage to Palestinian Authority civilian property. That damage included the destruction of office equipment, such as computers and photocopying machines, that did not appear to be related to military objectives. While denying that such destruction was systematic, the Israeli Defence Forces have admitted that their personnel engaged in some acts of vandalism, and are carrying out some related prosecutions."
Cheryl Rubenberg writes that data and records held by Palestinian civilian institutions were systematically destroyed by the IDF; among the institutions affected were the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), the Palestinian Authority's Ministries of Culture, Education and Health, and the Palestine International Bank.
Amira Hass, an Israeli reporter for Ha'aretz, criticized the IDF for targeting computer files and printed records, dubbing the offensive "Operation Destroy the Data". She wrote that "this was not a mission to search and destroy the terrorist infrastructure ... There was a decision made to vandalize the civic, administrative, cultural infrastructure developed by Palestinian society".
Destruction of non-governmental property
Large-scale destruction was reported of properties of NGOs, media, universities, cultural centers, and other institutions. Complete libraries and archives, including video and music archives, as well as equipment were looted, vandalized and destroyed. Also demolition of shops and a religious compound were reported.
Jenin massacre allegations
A great deal of the media attention to Operation "Defensive Shield" centered around Palestinians claims of a large-scale massacre in Jenin. Palestinian cabinet minister Saeb Erekat was widely quoted by the press as saying there were 500 massacred Palestinians in the Israeli assault on Jenin.
Human Rights Watch found no evidence to sustain claims of massacres or large-scale extrajudicial executions by the IDF in Jenin refugee camp. However, many of the civilian deaths documented amounted to unlawful or willful killings by the IDF according to Human Rights Watch. Many others could have been avoided if the IDF had taken proper precautions to protect civilian life during its military operation, as required by international humanitarian law. Among the civilian deaths were those of Kamal Zgheir, a fifty-seven-year-old wheelchair-bound man who was shot and run over by a tank on a major road outside the camp on April 10, even though he had a white flag attached to his wheelchair; fifty-eight-year-old Mariam Wishahi, killed by a missile in her home on April 6 just hours after her unarmed son was shot in the street; Jamal Fayid, a 37-year-old paralyzed man who was crushed in the rubble of his home on April 7 despite his family's pleas to be allowed to remove him; and fourteen-year-old Faris Zaiban, who was killed by fire from an IDF armored car as he went to buy groceries when the IDF-imposed curfew was temporarily lifted on April 11. Human Rights Watch stated that of at least 52 Palestinians were killed, at least 27 were suspected to have been armed Palestinian militants.
Multiple deaths were also caused by refusal (whether enforced by militia groups or voluntary is disputed) of Palestinian families to leave their houses, of which specific bulldozers, clearing the way for operations, were not alerted of on a house-to-house basis (See Israel-Gaza war 2008-2009 for similar issues; where IDF warnings were continually issued that specific houses carrying munitions were to be targeted, with Hamas response of forcing families to remain inside their houses.)
Initially Israel welcomed an investigation, announcing that it would cooperate fully with the Secretary General's fact-finding effort. According to the United Jewish Communities, Israel made a number of points regarding the team's methodology, in order to "safeguard the impartiality of its work." However, Israeli government receptivity to cooperating with the UN fact-finding mission decreased when the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, did not appoint a predominantly technical team with specialized military and forensic expertise, but rather political-administrative figures without such specialized skills (including Cornelio Sommaruga, controversial for previous "Red Swastika" remarks), and after Palestinian officials reduced the casualty toll in Jenin on May 1, 2002 to be between 50 and 60 deaths while Israel maintained there were only seven or eight civilian casualties. The charges of a massacre which had sparked demands for a U.N. investigation, had now been dropped. Kofi Annan disbanded the UN fact-finding team in Jenin supposed to determine whether a massacre had taken place with the comment that "[c]learly the full cooperation of both sides was a precondition for this, as was a visit to the area itself to see the Jenin refugee camp at first hand and to gather information. This is why the Secretariat engaged in a thorough clarification process with the Israeli delegation."
In 2002, Mohammed Bakri, a prominent Arab actor and Israeli citizen, directed and produced a documentary Jenin, Jenin, to portray "the Palestinian truth" about the "Battle of Jenin". In the documentary Bakri propagates that indeed a massacre of civilians occurred in Jenin. A French Jewish film maker, Pierre Rehov, also directed a documentary on what happened in Jenin during "Defensive Shield". His film, The Road to Jenin, was produced to counter the claims of a massacre, and to counter the narrative of Mohammed Bakri. CAMERA made a review of the two documentary films. According to the review, Bakri has admitted to shortening his film by 25 min in the wake of criticism.
Reported first-hand allegations
David Rohde of The New York Times on the April 16 reported:
Saed Dabayeh, who said he stayed in the camp through the fighting, led a group of reporters to a pile of rubble where he said he watched from his bedroom window as Israeli soldiers buried 10 bodies. "There was a hole here where they buried bodies," he said. "And then they collapsed a house on top of it." The Palestinian accounts could not be verified. "The smell of decomposing bodies hung over at least six heaps of rubble today, and weeks of excavation may be needed before an accurate death toll can be made."
Stewart Bell of the National Post on the April 15 reported that Ahmed Tibi, an Arab member of the Israeli Knesset, said he had met hundreds of Palestinians displaced by what he termed the "massacre" in Jenin. According to Tibi, "Everyone has a tragedy, about executions they saw, about their whole family that was killed, about the most tangible concern -- where is my family?" Bell reported that Jenin's population recounted "vivid accounts" of fighting and homes being demolished but first-hand accounts of massacres was scarce. One such rumor was a grocery store owner near Jenin who spoke of seeing Israeli troops using a refrigerated truck to hold the bodies of massacred Palestinians, which he said was still parked on a nearby hill. He refused to elaborate out of fear from "collaborators." Bell reported that a National Post reporter inspected the truck and found that it contained apples and other food for the Israeli soldiers.
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- "BLITZER: Mr. Erakat, you probably know that you've come under some widespread criticism here in the United States for initially charging that the Israelis were engaged in a massacre in Jenin. Perhaps 500 Palestinians murdered in that massacre, you suggested. But now all of the evidence suggests that perhaps 53 or 56 Palestinians died in that fighting in Jenin.
ERAKAT: It depends -- first of all, on the number 500, I said 500 but I said at the same time I cannot confirm them because I didn't have the chance to go and pull the rubble out and to clean the rubble out, and I don't know exactly, and I said I cannot confirm it.
But what defines a massacre? Israel called, when they had this bombing in the Netanya restaurant, 26 people, they called it a massacre. So what's a massacre?
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Archived from Washington Times site; as retrieved from [permanent dead link]Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine
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