Indie room designs

Indie room designs DEFAULT

Sitting at home wondering where to buy furniture online? There are tons of online furniture stores that make getting the perfect new ottoman or couch a breeze, if you can handle a few thrilling hours of scrolling and searching (one of our most treasured pastimes!). On these sites, you’ll find gorgeous furniture and home decor in a wide variety of styles, plus fast (and often free!) shipping. Some of these retailers you’d expect to see (Target, IKEA, Crate & Barrel, etc.), but others (like Home Depot and Etsy) might come as a surprise. Discover the 37 best online furniture stores now—and happy shopping.

1. Anthropologie

Every time Anthro comes out with a new collection, it’s guaranteed we want something (if not everything) from it. Anthropologie’s personality-packed designs are made to stand out—they’re Insta- and splurge-worthy. It’s also quick and easy to talk to a furniture consultant online about any questions you have as you shop.

2. Etsy

Etsy’s huge selection is a must-visit for one-of-a-kind handmade and vintage decor. Midcentury-modern dining tables? Etsy has those. Moroccan rugs? Those too. Ceramic tableware? Yep. And with every purchase, you’re supporting a small-business owner.

3. West Elm

Brooklyn-based West Elm, a Williams-Sonoma brand, is obviously a go-to for affordable modern decor, but that’s only part of the store’s appeal. West Elm also sells tons of organic, handcrafted, sustainably sourced, and Fair Trade Certified items. With frequent sales, plus 15% off when you sign up for their emails, you can get even better deals on the selection.

4. Amazon

You already know Amazon has everything under the sun, but did you know that includes competitively priced furniture that looks way more expensive than it really is, complete with free delivery? The myriad filtering options help you find exactly what you’re looking for, whether that’s a down comforter, a small-space humidifier, or a housewarming gift. Amazon is also the exclusive retailer for a few different decor brands, including Rivet, Stone & Beam, Ravenna Home, and, our personal favorite, Now House by Jonathan Adler.

5. World Market

World Market sells furniture and home decor from all over the world—think rugs from India and baskets from Indonesia. There’s a lot to sift through, but there are definitely standout pieces waiting to be found. As with most big-box stores, you’ll find more options online than you will in the brick-and-mortar locations. Plus, with frequent sales and a rewards program, you can usually score a great deal. Oh, and World Market often offers free shipping on orders of more than $199.

6. Apt2B

If you live for the details but have a budget to stick to, Apt2B is your store: Its stylish sofas, love seats, and couches are made to order in the U.S. and are available in more than 50 fabrics, but they’re still reasonably priced. Plus, shipping is always free, and you have up to 100 days to return your purchase. And if you’re wavering on what to add to cart, the site has tons of design tips and decorating guides to help take the guesswork out of decorating.

7. Target

Target is killing it lately with its in-house decor brands, which offer everything from midcentury-modern furniture (Project62) to contemporary-meets-country pieces (Hearth & Hand) to colorful bohemian styles (Opalhouse). And you’ll find lots more online than you will in the store. Score free shipping on orders over $35.

8. CB2

CB2, the younger offshoot of Crate & Barrel, offers a hip selection of modern, minimalist, and midcentury furniture that has made it a go-to for apartment dwellers and first-time home owners alike. CB2 offers free design consultations via video chat, and the company will also help you create mood boards and 3D room renderings. It’s also known for incredibly chic collaborations with designers and artists like Lenny Kravitz and Kara Mann.

9. Bed Bath & Beyond

If Bed Bath & Beyond furniture is good enough for Repeller’s Leandra Medine Cohen, it’s good enough for us. We’re happy to report that the store sells a lot more than just dorm room essentials these days, such as goes-with-anything sofas and super-chic accent chairs. Get 20% off all your purchases and free shipping when you enroll in the Beyond Plus loyalty program.

10. Wayfair

Wayfair has multiple sales going on daily, so you can find everything you could possibly want for the indoors or outdoors for up to 70% off. The brand’s annual Way Day sale, with discounts on thousands of items and a bunch of flash sales, is not to be missed either. All orders for more than $49 ship for free.

11. Joss & Main

Joss & Main carries hundreds of brands across every style. Its sophisticated collections make it easy to plan your dream decor and order right from your laptop or phone. Bonus: Flash sales happen regularly.

12. IKEA

No list of the best online furniture stores would be complete without IKEA. Its furniture is a staple for design lovers on a budget, with simple Scandi-style options for minimalists and trendier pieces for risk takers. Ordering online has its pros and cons: You can avoid the crowds and the maze-like layout of the store, but you’ll also miss out on the Swedish meatballs.

13. Home Depot

Melanie 24" Brushed Aluminum Swivel Bar Stool by Home Decorators Collection

We love the industrial vibe of these simple seats.

We’ve said it before and we’ll say it again: Home Depot is a great resource for home improvement projects, but also for furniture, bedding, lighting, throw pillows, and other home accents. Check out its Home Decorators Collection for good basics at reasonable prices.

14. Zinus

Order from Zinus and you can have a sofa, love seat, bed frame, or mattress delivered in three to five days, free of charge. All of its furniture can be assembled in 20 minutes or less with no tools. Its furniture tends to run on the smaller size and on the inexpensive side, so it’s perfect for tiny New York apartments or starter homes. Among its selection of couches, you’ll find bright pops of color as well as classic neutrals, and a variety of styles including midcentury, modern, and classic.

15. Burrow

One of the things we love most about Burrow is its infinitely customizable furniture. You can choose, for example, a couch or chair and then customize the fabric color, leg finish, arm style, and whether or not the pillows are tufted. With all these options, it’s easy to get exactly what you want. Did we mention Burrow offers free shipping on all orders? Sounds good to us.

16. AllModern

AllModern is a curation of the best modern furniture, from Scandinavian to farmhouse. The prices are competitive and the delivery is fast. What more could you want from online furniture shopping?

17. Design Within Reach

If you want to turn your home into a modern masterpiece, look no further than DWR. It offers sleek furniture for every single room in the house. Whether you want to spruce up your home office or overhaul your living room, DWR has the classics to transform your space.

18. 1stDibs

1stDibs’s high-end offerings range from antique and vintage pieces to postmodern marvels. In addition to vintage furniture, you’ll find the latest releases from rising contemporary design stars, as well as decor, pillows, lighting solutions, rugs, and more. It’s a one-stop shop for interior design.

19. AptDeco

Looking for vintage furniture? One of the best online stores for pre-owned furniture is AptDeco. You can buy from brands like West Elm or Herman Miller at a fraction of the (new) full price. Notably, this is one of the few vintage furniture stores that offers returns.

20. Walmart

It’s no surprise that Walmart sells basics like futons and straightforward media cabinets, but did you know that Walmart actually has a signature line of furniture? The company touts its line, MoDRN, as a collection of “elevated modern design with effortless style,” and we have to agree. MoDRN includes indoor and outdoor furniture, office chairs, nightstands, accent tables, TV stands, lighting, wall decor, and more.

21. Urban Outfitters

Shopping for furniture is an adventure on Urban Outfitters—you never know what you’ll find. Styles range from funky and eclectic to luxurious and glam, and it’s all Pinterest-worthy.

22. Serena & Lily

Serena & Lily channels calm, coastal vibes that we can’t get enough of. Shop the brand’s collection for deep couches, statement-making end tables, expansive coffee tables, unique console tables, hand-knotted area rugs, striking outdoor dining sets, and so much more. 

23. Lulu and Georgia

Lulu and Georgia is a forward-thinking furniture store run by a family that’s been designing interiors for three generations. If you’re looking for the latest designs and best style, you’ll find it here.

24. Crate & Barrel

Crate & Barrel offers stylish furniture for every room, from kitchen to home office. Though its prices are on the higher side, you can rest easy knowing its furniture is high-quality and made to last. Shipping is free on orders more than $99.

25. One Kings Lane

One Kings Lane has furniture in every style, but it actually has an entire section on its website devoted to vintage. From John Widdicomb side tables to Burmese rattan polo chairs, the site has all the vintage finds that will transform your living room into something straight out of The Great Gatsby.

26. RH

You can shop by room or by style (including ski house, beach house, or modern) on RH. Its extensive selection, plus design consultation services, make furnishing the home of your dreams a fairly straightforward process.

27. Ballard Designs

In addition to a stunning array of home furniture, Ballard Designs also sells fabric by the yard—meaning you can, say, reupholster your old recliners or chaise with a fabric that matches your new couch. Sweet! Ballard also has a design podcast called How to Decorate that you’ll definitely want to listen to.

28. Medley

This environmentally conscious brand is committed to using only nontoxic, eco-friendly materials. It exclusively uses real wood, hypoallergenic wool, and organic textiles. All of its products are free of fire retardants, ozone depleters, heavy metals, pesticides, and carcinogens. Not only are its products responsibly made and high quality, they’re also beautiful! Medley has a collection of sleek, handcrafted pieces for every room in your home.

29. Floyd

Floyd is another one of our favorite places to buy furniture. All Floyd’s modern, modular products are made with honest, high-quality materials. Its furniture is made to last and comes with a 10-year warranty. Shop the site for everything from platform beds to love seats. 

30. The Inside

Shop at The Inside and you’ll never need an interior designer. The brand curates entire sets of furniture for every room based on your style preferences and needs. If you’re starting from scratch (or starting over), The Inside makes it painless to pull together a room that looks like it was pulled from the pages of AD. You can also shop piece by piece, of course. Take its one-minute style quiz to find selections just for you.

31. Albany Park

Albany Park, founded by former NFL player Darryl Sharpton and his wife, Jessica, is on a mission to take the confusion out of furniture shopping. Instead of offering dozens of lines, they offer a limited selection of collections in a variety of colors and patterns. That way, it’s easier to choose what you really want instead of wading through endless, nearly identical options.  

32. Interior Define

Interior Define is home to neutral, well-designed staples intended to stand the test of time. Not only can you customize the color of each piece, you can also easily select other options such as fill, furniture legs, cushion style, and more, all from their website or brick-and-mortar shops in select cities. In addition to furniture, they also have a solid selection of rugs and lighting to finish a space. 

33. Maiden Home

Quality pieces abound at Maiden Home. Find seating, tables, rugs, and lighting (all made in the U.S.) in their online storefront. You can also visit their flagship store in Los Angeles, or their other locations in Austin, Boston, Chicago, New York, San Francisco, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. 

34. Jayson Home

Jayson Home specializes in unique and vintage-inspired furniture sourced from around the world. You'll find everything from selenite logs and leather coolers to airy pendants and midcentury burlwood desks with brass detailing. We’re such fans of their Chicago flagship, we named them one of the 40 Best Home Decor Stores in America.  

35. Pottery Barn

This mainstay is a household name for a reason. Based in San Francisco as part of the Williams-Sonoma portfolio (including West Elm and Rejuvenation), there are many stores around the world, but Pottery Barn has a huge online selection that puts their collections at your fingertips no matter where you are. Their high-quality furniture ranges from classic to contemporary—and, after nearly a century in business, they’re prioritizing sustainability with initiatives centered on responsibly sourced wood and cotton and recycled fabrics. 

36. Overstock

Overstock is a one-stop shop for, well, seemingly everything. They’ve got furniture for every room in the house, plus rugs, decor, patio furniture, kitchen goods, and lighting. They also are big on sales and deals, so timing is the name of the game if you’re looking for super discounted products.

37. Living Spaces

Last but not least on our list of where to buy furniture online is Living Spaces. Living Spaces offers a huge selection of furniture, mattresses, and home decor. Not only does it have a wide range of styles, the customization options are practically endless. The in-house design studio offers more than 120 upholstery options with no extra charge, and your custom online order will be ready in two to three weeks.


Video game development

"Game development" redirects here. It is not to be confused with board game development.

Process of developing a video game

Video game development is the process of developing a video game. The effort is undertaken by a developer, ranging from a single person to an international team dispersed across the globe. Development of traditional commercial PC and console games is normally funded by a publisher, and can take several years to reach completion. Indie games usually take less time and money and can be produced by individuals and smaller developers. The independent game industry has been on the rise, facilitated by the growth of accessible game development software such as Unity platform and Unreal Engine[1] and new online distribution systems such as Steam and Uplay, as well as the mobile game market for Android and iOS devices.

The first video games, developed in the 1960s, were not usually commercialised. They required mainframe computers to run and were not available to the general public. Commercial game development began in the '70s with the advent of first-generation video game consoles and early home computers like the Apple I. At that time, owing to low costs and low capabilities of computers, a lone programmer could develop a full and complete game. However, in the late '80s and '90s, ever-increasing computer processing power and heightened expectations from gamers made it difficult for a single person to produce a mainstream console or PC game. The average cost of producing a triple-A video game slowly rose, from US$1–4 million in 2000, to over $5 million in 2006, then to over $20 million by 2010[citation needed].

Mainstream commercial PC and console games are generally developed in phases: first, in pre-production, pitches, prototypes, and game design documents are written; if the idea is approved and the developer receives funding, then full-scale development begins. The development of a complete game usually involves a team of 20–100 individuals with various responsibilities, including designers, artists, programmers, and testers.


Games are produced through the software development process. Games are developed as a creative outlet and to generate profit. Game making is considered both art and science.[6] Development is normally funded by a publisher. Well-made games bring profit more readily. However, it is important to estimate a game's financial requirements, such as development costs of individual features. Failing to provide clear implications of game's expectations may result in exceeding allocated budget. In fact, the majority of commercial games do not produce profit.[11] Most developers cannot afford changing their development schedule mid-way, and require estimating their capabilities with available resources before production.

The game industry requires innovations, as publishers cannot profit from constant release of repetitive sequels and imitations.[neutrality is disputed] Every year new independent development companies open and some manage to develop hit titles. Similarly, many developers close down because they cannot find a publishing contract or their production is not profitable. It is difficult to start a new company due to high initial investment required. Nevertheless, growth of casual and mobile game market has allowed developers with smaller teams to enter the market. Once the companies become financially stable, they may expand to develop larger games. Most developers start small and gradually expand their business. A developer receiving profit from a successful title may store up capital to expand and re-factor their company, as well as tolerate more failed deadlines.

An average development budget for a multiplatform game is US$18-28M, with high-profile games often exceeding $40M.[18]

In the early era of home computers and video game consoles in the early 1980s, a single programmer could handle almost all the tasks of developing a game — programming, graphical design, sound effects, etc.[20][21] It could take as little as six weeks to develop a game.[20] However, the high user expectations and requirements[20] of modern commercial games far exceed the capabilities of a single developer and require the splitting of responsibilities. A team of over a hundred people can be employed full-time for a single project.[21]

Game development, production, or design is a process that starts from an idea or concept.[26] Often the idea is based on a modification of an existing game concept. The game idea may fall within one or several genres. Designers often experiment with different combinations of genres.[29] A game designer generally writes an initial game proposal document, that describes the basic concept, gameplay, feature list, setting and story, target audience, requirements and schedule, and finally staff and budget estimates. Different companies have different formal procedures and philosophies regarding game design and development. There is no standardized development method; however commonalities exist.[33]

A game developer may range from a single individual to a large multinational company. There are both independent and publisher-owned studios. Independent developers rely on financial support from a game publisher.[35] They usually have to develop a game from concept to prototype without external funding. The formal game proposal is then submitted to publishers, who may finance the game development from several months to years. The publisher would retain exclusive rights to distribute and market the game and would often own the intellectual property rights for the game franchise. Publisher's company may also own the developer's company,[36] or it may have internal development studio(s). Generally the publisher is the one who owns the game's intellectual property rights.[11]

All but the smallest developer companies work on several titles at once. This is necessary because of the time taken between shipping a game and receiving royalty payments, which may be between 6 and 18 months. Small companies may structure contracts, ask for advances on royalties, use shareware distribution, employ part-time workers and use other methods to meet payroll demands.

Console manufacturers, such as Microsoft, Nintendo, or Sony, have a standard set of technical requirements that a game must conform to in order to be approved. Additionally, the game concept must be approved by the manufacturer, who may refuse to approve certain titles.[38]

Most modern PC or console games take from three to five years to complete.[citation needed], where as a mobile game can be developed in a few months.[39] The length of development is influenced by a number of factors, such as genre, scale, development platform and number of assets.[citation needed]

Some games can take much longer than the average time frame to complete. An infamous example is 3D Realms' Duke Nukem Forever, announced to be in production in April 1997 and released fourteen years later in June 2011.[40] Planning for Maxis' game Spore began in late 1999; the game was released nine years later in September 2008.[citation needed] The game Prey was briefly profiled in a 1997 issue of PC Gamer, but was not released until 2006, and only then in highly altered form. Finally, Team Fortress 2 was in development from 1998 until its 2007 release, and emerged from a convoluted development process involving "probably three or four different games", according to Gabe Newell.[41]

The game revenue from retails is divided among the parties along the distribution chain, such as — developer, publisher, retail, manufacturer and console royalty. Many developers fail to profit from this and go bankrupt. Many developers seek alternative economic models through Internet marketing and distribution channels to improve returns., as through a mobile distribution channel the share of a developer can be up to 70% of the total revenue[39] and through an online distribution channel owned by the developer almost 100%.[citation needed]


The history of game making begins with the development of the first video games, although which video game is the first depends on the definition of video game. The first games created had little entertainment value, and their development focus was separate from user experience—in fact, these games required mainframe computers to play them.OXO, written by Alexander S. Douglas in 1952, was the first computer game to use a digital display. In 1958, a game called Tennis for Two, which displayed its output on an oscilloscope, was made by Willy Higinbotham, a physicist working at the Brookhaven National Laboratory.[45] In 1961, a mainframe computer game called Spacewar! was developed by a group of Massachusetts Institute of Technology students led by Steve Russell.

True commercial design and development of games began in the 1970s, when arcade video games and first-generation consoles were marketed. In 1971, Computer Space was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game. It used a black-and-white television for its display, and the computer system was made of 74 seriesTTLchips.[46] In 1972, the first home console system was released called Magnavox Odyssey, developed by Ralph H. Baer.[47] That same year, Atari released Pong, an arcade game that increased video game popularity.[48] The commercial success of Pong led other companies to develop Pong clones, spawning the video game industry.[49]

Programmers worked within the big companies to produce games for these devices. The industry did not see huge innovation in game design and a large number of consoles had very similar games. Many of these early games were often Pong clones.[51] Some games were different, however, such as Gun Fight, which was significant for several reasons:[52] an early 1975 on-foot, multi-directional shooter,[53] which depicted game characters,[54]game violence, and human-to-human combat.[55]Tomohiro Nishikado's original version was based on discrete logic,[56] which Dave Nutting adapted using the Intel 8080, making it the first video game to use a microprocessor.[57] Console manufacturers soon started to produce consoles that were able to play independently developed games, and ran on microprocessors, marking the beginning of second-generation consoles, beginning with the release of the Fairchild Channel F in 1976.[citation needed]

The flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which eventually came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 arcade shooter gameSpace Invaders,[51] marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market.[51][59] Its creator Nishikado not only designed and programmed the game, but also did the artwork, engineered the arcade hardware, and put together a microcomputer from scratch.[60] It was soon ported to the Atari 2600, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales.[61] At the same time, home computers appeared on the market, allowing individual programmers and hobbyists to develop games. This allowed hardware manufacturer and software manufacturers to act separately. A very large number of games could be produced by an individual, as games were easy to make because graphical and memory limitation did not allow for much content. Larger companies developed, who focused selected teams to work on a title. The developers of many early home video games, such as Zork, Baseball, Air Warrior, and Adventure, later transitioned their work as products of the early video game industry.[citation needed]

I wouldn't recommend [designing computer games] for someone with a weak heart or a large appetite

— Jon Freeman, 1984[63]

The industry expanded significantly at the time, with the arcade video game sector alone (representing the largest share of the gaming industry) generating higher revenues than both pop music and Hollywood films combined.[64] The home video game industry, however, suffered major losses following the video game crash of 1983.[65] In 1984 Jon Freeman warned in Computer Gaming World:

Q: Are computer games the way to fame and fortune? A: No. Not unless your idea of fame is having your name recognized by one or two astute individuals at Origins ... I've been making a living (after a fashion) designing games for most of the last six years. I wouldn't recommend it for someone with a weak heart or a large appetite, though.[63]

Chris Crawford and Don Daglow in 1987 similarly advised prospective designers to write games as a hobby first, and to not quit their existing jobs early.[66][67] The home video game industry was revitalized soon after by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System.[68]

Compute!'s Gazette in 1986 stated that although individuals developed most early video games, "It's impossible for one person to have the multiple talents necessary to create a good game".[69] By 1987 a video game required 12 months to develop and another six to plan marketing. Projects remained usually solo efforts, with single developers delivering finished games to their publishers.[67] With the ever-increasing processing and graphical capabilities of arcade, console and computer products, along with an increase in user expectations, game design moved beyond the scope of a single developer to produce a marketable game.[70] The Gazette stated, "The process of writing a game involves coming up with an original, entertaining concept, having the skill to bring it to fruition through good, efficient programming, and also being a fairly respectable artist".[69] This sparked the beginning of team-based development.[citation needed] In broad terms, during the 1980s, pre-production involved sketches and test routines of the only developer. In the 1990s, pre-production consisted mostly of game art previews. In the early 2000s, pre-production usually produced a playable demo.

In 2000 a 12 to 36 month development project was funded by a publisher for US$1M–3M. Additionally, $250k–1.5M were spent on marketing and sales development. In 2001, over 3000 games were released for PC; and from about 100 games turning profit only about 50 made significant profit. In the early 2000s it became increasingly common to use middleware game engines, such as Quake engine or Unreal engine.

In the early 2000s, also mobile games started to gain popularity. However, mobile games distributed by mobile operators remained a marginal form of gaming until the Apple App Store was launched in 2008.[39]

In 2005, a mainstream console video game cost from US$3M to $6M to develop. Some games cost as much as $20M to develop.[75] In 2006 the profit from a console game sold at retail was divided among parties of distribution chain as follows: developer (13%), publisher (32%), retail (32%), manufacturer (5%), console royalty (18%). In 2008 a developer would retain around 17% of retail price and around 85% if sold online.[11]

Since the third generation of consoles, the home video game industry has constantly increased and expanded. The industry revenue has increased at least five-fold since the 1990s. In 2007, the software portion of video game revenue was $9.5 billion, exceeding that of the movie industry.

The Apple App Store, introduced in 2008, was the first mobile application store operated directly by the mobile platform holder. It significantly changed the consumer behaviour more favourable for downloading mobile content and quickly broadened the markets of mobile games.[39]

In 2009 games' market annual value was estimated between $7–30 billion, depending on which sales figures are included. This is on par with films' box office market. A publisher would typically fund an independent developer for $500k–$5M for a development of a title. In 2012, the total value had already reached $66.3 billion and by then the video game markets were no longer dominated by console games. According to Newzoo, the share of MMO's was 19.8%, PC/MAC's 9.8%, tablets' 3.2%, smartphones 10.6%, handhelds' 9.8%, consoles' only 36.7% and online casual games 10.2%. The fastest growing market segments being mobile games with an average annual rate of 19% for smartphones and 48% for tablets.[78]

In the past several years, many developers opened and many closed down. Each year a number of developers are acquired by larger companies or merge with existing companies. For example, in 2007 Blizzard Entertainment's parent company, Vivendi Games merged with Activision. In 2008 Electronic Arts nearly acquired Take-Two Interactive. In 2009 Midway Games was acquired by Time-Warner and Eidos Interactive merged with Square Enix.



Main article: Video game producer

Development is overseen by internal and external producers. The producer working for the developer is known as the internal producer and manages the development team, schedules, reports progress, hires and assigns staff, and so on. The producer working for the publisher is known as the external producer and oversees developer progress and budget. Producer's responsibilities include PR, contract negotiation, liaising between the staff and stakeholders, schedule and budget maintenance, quality assurance, beta test management, and localization. This role may also be referred to as project manager, project lead, or director.


Main article: Video game publisher


This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2010)

A video game publisher is a company that publishes video games that they have either developed internally or have had developed by an external video game developer. As with book publishers or publishers of DVD movies, video game publishers are responsible for their product's manufacturing and marketing, including market research and all aspects of advertising.

They usually finance the development, sometimes by paying a video game developer (the publisher calls this external development) and sometimes by paying an internal staff of developers called a studio. Consequently, they also typically own the IP of the game.[39] Large video game publishers also distribute the games they publish, while some smaller publishers instead hire distribution companies (or larger video game publishers) to distribute the games they publish.

Other functions usually performed by the publisher include deciding on and paying for any license that the game may utilize; paying for localization; layout, printing, and possibly the writing of the user manual; and the creation of graphic design elements such as the box design.

Large publishers may also attempt to boost efficiency across all internal and external development teams by providing services such as sound design and code packages for commonly needed functionality.

Because the publisher usually finances development, it usually tries to manage development risk with a staff of producers or project managers to monitor the progress of the developer, critique ongoing development, and assist as necessary. Most video games created by an external video game developer are paid for with periodic advances on royalties. These advances are paid when the developer reaches certain stages of development, called milestones.

Independent video game developers create games without a publisher and may choose to digitally distribute their games.[citation needed]

Development team[edit]

Developers can range in size from small groups making casual games to housing hundreds of employees and producing several large titles. Companies divide their subtasks of game's development. Individual job titles may vary; however, roles are the same within the industry. The development team consists of several members. Some members of the team may handle more than one role; similarly more than one task may be handled by the same member. Team size can vary from 20 to 100 or more members, depending on the game's scope. The most represented are artists, followed by programmers, then designers, and finally, audio specialists, with two to three producers in management. These positions are employed full-time. Other positions, such as testers, may be employed only part-time. Salaries for these positions vary depending on both the experience and the location of the employee. An entry-level programmer can make, on average, around $70,000 annually and an experienced programmer can make, on average, around $125,000 annually.[86]

A development team includes these roles or disciplines:


Further information: Video game design

A game designer is a person who designs gameplay, conceiving and designing the rules and structure of a game.[88] Development teams usually have a lead designer who coordinates the work of other designers. They are the main visionary of the game.[90] One of the roles of a designer is being a writer, often employed part-time to conceive game's narrative, dialogue, commentary, cutscene narrative, journals, video game packaging content, hint system, etc. In larger projects, there are often separate designers for various parts of the game, such as, game mechanics, user interface, characters, dialogue, graphics, etc.[citation needed]


Further information: Game art design

A game artist is a visual artist who creates video game art. The art production is usually overseen by an art director or art lead, making sure their vision is followed. The art director manages the art team, scheduling and coordinating within the development team.

The artist's job may be 2D oriented or 3D oriented. 2D artists may produce concept art, sprites,textures, environmental backdrops or terrain images, and user interface.3D artists may produce models or meshes, animation, 3D environment, and cinematics. Artists sometimes occupy both roles.[citation needed]


Main article: Game programmer

A game programmer is a software engineer who primarily develops video games or related software (such as game development tools). The game's codebase development is handled by programmers. There are usually one to several lead programmers, who implement the game's starting codebase and overview future development and programmer allocation on individual modules.

Individual programming disciplines roles include:

  • Physics – the programming of the game engine, including simulating physics, collision, object movement, etc.;
  • AI – producing computer agents using game AI techniques, such as scripting, planning, rule-based decisions, etc.
  • Graphics – the managing of graphical content utilization and memory considerations; the production of graphics engine, integration of models, textures to work along the physics engine.
  • Sound – integration of music, speech, effect sounds into the proper locations and times.
  • Gameplay – implementation of various games rules and features (sometimes called a generalist);
  • Scripting – development and maintenance of high-level command system for various in-game tasks, such as AI, level editor triggers, etc.
  • UI – production of user interface elements, like option menus, HUDs, help and feedback systems, etc.
  • Input processing – processing and compatibility correlation of various input devices, such as keyboard, mouse, gamepad, etc.
  • Network communications – the managing of data inputs and outputs for local and internet gameplay.
  • Game tools – the production of tools to accompany the development of the game, especially for designers and scripters.

Level designer[edit]

Further information: Level design

A level designer is a person who creates levels, challenges or missions for video games using a specific set of programs. These programs may be commonly available commercial 3D or 2D design programs, or specially designed and tailored level editors made for a specific game.

Level designers work with both incomplete and complete versions of the game. Game programmers usually produce level editors and design tools for the designers to use. This eliminates the need for designers to access or modify game code. Level editors may involve custom high-levelscripting languages for interactive environments or AIs. As opposed to the level editing tools sometimes available to the community, level designers often work with placeholders and prototypes aiming for consistency and clear layout before required artwork is completed.

Sound engineer[edit]

Sound engineers are technical professionals responsible for sound effects and sound positioning. They sometimes oversee voice acting and other sound asset creation.Composers who create a game's musical score also comprise a game's sound team, though often this work is outsourced.


Further information: Game testing

The quality assurance is carried out by game testers. A game tester analyzes video games to document software defects as part of a quality control. Testing is a highly technical field requiring computing expertise, and analytic competence.

The testers ensure that the game falls within the proposed design: it both works and is entertaining.This involves testing of all features, compatibility, localization, etc. Although, necessary throughout the whole development process, testing is expensive and is often actively utilized only towards the completion of the project.

Development process[edit]

Game development is a software development process, as a video game is software with art, audio, and gameplay. Formal software development methods are often overlooked. Games with poor development methodology are likely to run over budget and time estimates, as well as contain a large number of bugs. Planning is important for individual and group projects alike.

Overall game development is not suited for typical software life cycle methods, such as the waterfall model.

One method employed for game development is agile development. It is based on iterative prototyping, a subset of software prototyping. Agile development depends on feedback and refinement of game's iterations with gradually increasing feature set.[116] This method is effective because most projects do not start with a clear requirement outline. A popular method of agile software development is Scrum.[117]

Another successful method is Personal Software Process (PSP) requiring additional training for staff to increase awareness of project's planning.[118] This method is more expensive and requires commitment of team members. PSP can be extended to Team Software Process, where the whole team is self-directing.[119]

Game development usually involves an overlap of these methods. For example, asset creation may be done via waterfall model, because requirements and specification are clear, but gameplay design might be done using iterative prototyping.

Development of a commercial game usually includes the following stages:


Pre-production or design phase is a planning phase of the project focused on idea and concept development and production of initial design documents.[125][126] The goal of concept development is to produce clear and easy to understand documentation,[127] which describes all the tasks, schedules and estimates for the development team. The suite of documents produced in this phase is called production plan. This phase is usually not funded by a publisher, however good publishers may require developers to produce plans during pre-production.

The concept documentation can be separated into three stages or documents—high concept, pitch and concept; however, there is no industry standard naming convention, for example, both Bethke (2003) and Bates (2004) refer to pitch document as "game proposal", yet Moore, Novak (2010) refers to concept document as "game proposal".

The late stage of pre-production may also be referred to as proof of concept, or technical review when more detailed game documents are produced.

Publishers have started to expect broader game proposals even featuring playable prototypes.

High concept[edit]

High concept is a brief description of a game. The high concept is the one-or two-sentence response to the question, "What is your game about?".


A pitch,concept document, proposal document, or game proposal is a short summary document intended to present the game's selling points and detail why the game would be profitable to develop.

Verbal pitches may be made to management within the developer company, and then presented to publishers. A written document may need to be shown to publishers before funding is approved. A game proposal may undergo one to several green-light meetings with publisher executives who determine if the game is to be developed. The presentation of the project is often given by the game designers.[134]Demos may be created for the pitch; however may be unnecessary for established developers with good track records.[134]

If the developer acts as its own publisher, or both companies are subsidiaries of a single company, then only the upper management needs to give approval.[134]


Concept document,game proposal, or game plan[135] is a more detailed document than the pitch document.[127] This includes all the information produced about the game.[135] This includes the high concept, game's genre, gameplay description, features, setting, story, target audience, hardware platforms, estimated schedule, marketing analysis, team requirements, and risk analysis.

Before an approved design is completed, a skeleton crew of programmers and artists usually begins work.[134] Programmers may develop quick-and-dirty prototypes showcasing one or more features that stakeholders would like to see incorporated in the final product.[134] Artists may develop concept art and asset sketches as a springboard for developing real game assets.[134] Producers may work part-time on the game at this point, scaling up for full-time commitment as development progresses.[134] Game producers work during pre-production is related to planning the schedule, budget and estimating tasks with the team.[134] The producer aims to create a solid production plan so that no delays are experienced at the start of the production.[134]

Game design document[edit]

Main article: Game design document

Before a full-scale production can begin, the development team produces the first version of a game design document incorporating all or most of the material from the initial pitch.[138] The design document describes the game's concept and major gameplay elements in detail. It may also include preliminary sketches of various aspects of the game. The design document is sometimes accompanied by functional prototypes of some sections of the game.[citation needed] The design document remains a living document throughout the development—often changed weekly or even daily.[139]

Compiling a list of game's needs is called "requirement capture".


Placeholder graphics are characteristic of early game prototypes.

Writing prototypes of gameplay ideas and features is an important activity that allows programmers and game designers to experiment with different algorithms and usability scenarios for a game. A great deal of prototyping may take place during pre-production before the design document is complete and may, in fact, help determine what features the design specifies. Prototyping at this stage is often done manually, (paper prototyping), not digitally[citation needed], as this is often easier and faster to test and make changes before wasting time and resources into what could be a canceled idea or project. Prototyping may also take place during active development to test new ideas as the game emerges.

Prototypes are often meant only to act as a proof of concept or to test ideas, by adding, modifying or removing some of the features. Most algorithms and features debuted in a prototype may be ported to the game once they have been completed.

Often prototypes need to be developed quickly with very little time for up-front design (around 15 to 20 minutes of testing)[citation needed]. Therefore, usually very prolific programmers are called upon to quickly code these testbed tools. RAD tools may be used to aid in the quick development of these programs. In case the prototype is in a physical form, programmers and designers alike will make the game with paper, dice, and other easy to access tools in order to make the prototype faster.

A successful development model is iterative prototyping, where design is refined based on current progress. There are various technology available for video game development


Production is the main stage of development, when assets and source code for the game are produced.[142]

Mainstream production is usually defined as the period of time when the project is fully staffed.[citation needed] Programmers write new source code, artists develop game assets, such as, sprites or 3D models. Sound engineers develop sound effects and composers develop music for the game. Level designers create levels, and writers write dialogue for cutscenes and NPCs.[original research?] Game designers continue to develop the game's design throughout production.


Main article: Game design

Game design is an essential and collaborative process of designing the content and rules of a game, requiring artistic and technical competence as well as writing skills. Creativity and an open mind is vital for the completion of a successful video game.

During development, the game designer implements and modifies the game design to reflect the current vision of the game. Features and levels are often removed or added. The art treatment may evolve and the backstory may change. A new platform may be targeted as well as a new demographic. All these changes need to be documented and disseminated to the rest of the team. Most changes occur as updates to the design document.


Main article: Game programming

The programming of the game is handled by one or more game programmers. They develop prototypes to test ideas, many of which may never make it into the final game. The programmers incorporate new features demanded by the game design and fix any bugs introduced during the development process. Even if an off-the-shelf game engine is used, a great deal of programming is required to customize almost every game.

Level creation[edit]

Main article: Level design

From a time standpoint, the game's first level takes the longest to develop. As level designers and artists use the tools for level building, they request features and changes to the in-house tools that allow for quicker and higher quality development. Newly introduced features may cause old levels to become obsolete, so the levels developed early on may be repeatedly developed and discarded. Because of the dynamic environment of game development, the design of early levels may also change over time. It is not uncommon to spend upwards of twelve months on one level of a game developed over the course of three years. Later levels can be developed much more quickly as the feature set is more complete and the game vision is clearer and more stable.

Art production[edit]

Main article: Game art design


This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2010)

Audio production[edit]

Game audio may be separated into three categories—sound effects, music, and voice-over.

Sound effect production is the production of sounds by either tweaking a sample to a desired effect or replicating it with real objects. Sound effects are important and impact the game's delivery.

Music may be synthesized or performed live.

There are several ways in which music is presented in a game.

  • Music may be ambient, especially for slow periods of game, where the music aims to reinforce the aesthetic mood and game setting.
  • Music may be triggered by in-game events. For example, in such games as Pac-Man or Mario, player picking up power-ups triggered respective musical scores.
  • Action music, such as chase, battle or hunting sequences is fast-paced, hard-changing score.
  • Menu music, similar to credits music, creates aural impact while relatively little action is taking place.

A game title with 20 hours of single-player gameplay may feature around 1 hour.

Voice-overs and voice acting creates character gameplay interactivity. Voice acting adds personality to the game's characters.


Main article: Game testing

Quality assurance of a video game product plays a significant role throughout the development cycle of a game, though comes more significantly into play as the game nears completion. Unlike other software products or productivity applications, video games are fundamentally meant to entertain, and thus the testing of video games is more focused on the end-user experience rather than the accuracy of the software code's performance, which leads to differences in how game software is developed.[152]

Because game development is focused on the presentation and gameplay as seen by the player, there often is little rigor in maintaining and testing backend code in early stages of development since such code may be readily disregarded if there are changes found in gameplay. Some automated testing may be used to assure the core game engine operates as expected, but most game testing comes via game tester, who enter the testing process once a playable prototype is available. This may be one level or subset of the game software that can be used to any reasonable extent.[152] The use of testers may be lightweight at the early stages of development, but the testers' role becomes more predominant as the game nears completion, becoming a full-time role alongside development.[152] Early testing is considered a key part of game design; the most common issue raised in several published post-mortems on game developer was the failure to start the testing process early.[152]

As code matures and the gameplay features solidify, then development typically includes more rigorous test controls such as regression testing to make sure new updates to the code base do not change working parts of the game. Games are complex software systems, and changes in one code area may unexpected cause a seemingly unrelated part of the game to fail. Testers are tasked to repeated play through updated versions of games in these later stages to look for any issues or bugs not otherwise found from automated testing. Because this can be a monotonous task of playing the same game over and over, this process can lead to games frequently being released with uncaught bugs or glitches.[152]

There are other factors simply inherit to video games that can make testing difficult. This includes the use of randomized gameplay systems, which require more testing for both game balance and bug tracking than more linearized games, the balance of cost and time to devote to testing as part of the development budget, and assuring that the game still remains fun and entertaining to play as changes are made to it.[152]

Despite the dangers of overlooking regression testing, some game developers and publishers fail to test the full feature suite of the game and ship a game with bugs. This can result in customers dissatisfaction and failure to meet sales goals. When this does happen, most developers and publishers quickly release patches that fix the bugs and make the game fully playable again.[152] More recent, certain publishing models are designed specifically to accommodate the fact that first releases of games may be bug-ridden but will be fixed post-release. The early access model invites players to pay into a game before its planned release and help to provide feedback and bug reports.[152]Mobile games and games with live services are also anticipated to be updated on a frequent basis, offset pre-release testing with live feedback and bug reports.[152]


Video game development milestones follow a similar process as with other software development.

Commercial game development projects may be required to meet milestones set by publisher. Milestones mark major events during game development and are used to track game's progress.[153] Such milestones may be, for example, first playable,[155]alpha,[157] or beta[157] game versions. Project milestones depend on the developer schedules.[153]

Milestones are usually based on multiple short descriptions for functionality; examples may be "Player roaming around in game environment" or "Physics working, collisions, vehicle" etc. (numerous descriptions are possible). These milestones are usually how the developer gets paid; sometimes as "an advance against royalty". These milestones are listed, anywhere from three to twenty depending on developer and publisher. The milestone list is usually a collaborative agreement between the publisher and developer. The developer usually advocates for making the milestone descriptions as simple as possible; depending on the specific publisher - the milestone agreements may get very detailed for a specific game. When working with a good publisher, the "spirit of the law" is usually adhered to regarding milestone completion... in other words if the milestone is 90% complete the milestone is usually paid with the understanding that it will be 100% complete by the next due milestone. It is a collaborative agreement between publisher and developer, and usually (but not always) the developer is constrained by heavy monthly development expenses that need to be met. Also, sometimes milestones are "swapped", the developer or publisher may mutually agree to amend the agreement and rearrange milestone goals depending on changing requirements and development resources available. Milestone agreements are usually included as part of the legal development contracts. After each "milestone" there is usually a payment arrangement. Some very established developers may simply have a milestone agreement based on the amount of time the game is in development (monthly / quarterly) and not specific game functionality - this is not as common as detailed functionality "milestone lists".

There is no industry standard for defining milestones, and such vary depending on publisher, year, or project. Some common milestones for two-year development cycle are as follows:[153]

First playable[edit]

The first playable is the game version containing representative gameplay and assets,[153] this is the first version with functional major gameplay elements. It is often based on the prototype created in pre-production.[155] Alpha and first playable are sometimes used to refer to a single milestone, however large projects require first playable before feature complete alpha. First playable occurs 12 to 18 months before code release. It is sometimes referred to as the "Pre-Alpha" stage.[157]


See also: Alpha release

Alpha is the stage when key gameplay functionality is implemented, and assets are partially finished.[157] A game in alpha is feature complete, that is, game is playable and contains all the major features. These features may be further revised based on testing and feedback.[157] Additional small, new features may be added, similarly planned, but unimplemented features may be dropped. Programmers focus mainly on finishing the codebase, rather than implementing additions.

Code freeze[edit]

Code freeze is the stage when new code is no longer added to the game and only bugs are being corrected. Code freeze occurs three to four months before code release.[157]


See also: Beta release

Beta is feature and asset complete version of the game, when only bugs are being fixed.[157] This version contains no bugs that prevent the game from being shippable. No changes are made to the game features, assets, or code. Beta occurs two to three months before code release.[157]

Code release[edit]

Code release is the stage when many bugs are fixed and game is ready to be shipped or submitted for console manufacturer review. This version is tested against QA test plan. First code release candidate is usually ready three to four weeks before code release.[157]

Gold master[edit]

See also: Release to manufacturing

Gold master is the final game's build that is used as a master for production of the game.

Release schedules and "crunch time"[edit]

See also: Video game developer § Crunch time

In most AAA game development, games are announced a year or more and given a planned release date or approximate window so that they can promote and market the game, establish orders with retailers, and entice consumers to pre-order the game. Delaying the release of a video game can have negative financial impact for publishers and developers, and extensive delays may lead to project cancellation and employee layoffs. To assure a game makes a set release date, publishers and developers may require their employees to work overtime to complete the game, which is considered common in the industry. This overtime is often referred to it as "crunch time" or "crunch mode". In 2004 and afterwards, the culture of crunch time in the industry came under scrutiny, leading to many publishers and developers to reduce the expectation on developers for overtime work and better schedule management, though crunch time still can occur.


After the game goes gold and ships, some developers will give team members comp time (perhaps up to a week or two) to compensate for the overtime put in to complete the game, though this compensation is not standard.[citation needed]


Once a game ships, the maintenance phase for the video game begins.

Games developed for video game consoles have had almost no maintenance period in the past. The shipped game would forever house as many bugs and features as when released. This was common for consoles since all consoles had identical or nearly identical hardware; making incompatibility, the cause of many bugs, a non-issue. In this case, maintenance would only occur in the case of a port, sequel, or enhanced remake that reuses a large portion of the engine and assets.[citation needed]

In recent times popularity of online console games has grown, and online capable video game consoles and online services such as Xbox Live for the Xbox have developed. Developers can maintain their software through downloadable patches. These changes would not have been possible in the past without the widespread availability of the Internet.[citation needed]

PC development is different. Game developers try to account for majority of configurations and hardware. However, the number of possible configurations of hardware and software inevitably leads to discovery of game-breaking circumstances that the programmers and testers didn't account for.[citation needed]

Programmers wait for a period to get as many bug reports as possible. Once the developer thinks they've obtained enough feedback, the programmers start working on a patch. The patch may take weeks or months to develop, but it's intended to fix most accounted bugs and problems with the game that were overlooked past code release, or in rare cases, fix unintended problems caused by previous patches. Occasionally a patch may include extra features or content or may even alter gameplay.[citation needed]

In the case of a massively multiplayer online game (MMOG), such as a MMORPG or MMORTS, the shipment of the game is the starting phase of maintenance. Such online games are in continuous maintenance as the gameworld is continuously changed and iterated and new features are added. The maintenance staff for a popular MMOG can number in the dozens, sometimes including members of the original programming team.[citation needed]


Several development disciplines, such as audio, dialogue, or motion capture, occur for relatively short periods of time. Efficient employment of these roles requires either large development house with multiple simultaneous title production or outsourcing from third-party vendors. Employing personnel for these tasks full-time is expensive, so a majority of developers outsource a portion of the work. Outsourcing plans are conceived during the pre-production stage; where the time and finances required for outsourced work are estimated.

  • The music cost ranges based on length of composition, method of performance (live or synthesized), and composer experience. In 2003 a minute of high quality synthesized music cost between US$600-1.5k. A title with 20 hours of gameplay and 60 minutes of music may have cost $50k-60k for its musical score.
  • Voice acting is well-suited for outsourcing as it requires a set of specialized skills. Only large publishers employ in-house voice actors.
  • Sound effects can also be outsourced.
  • Programming is generally outsourced less than other disciplines, such as art or music. However, outsourcing for extra programming work or savings in salaries has become more common in recent years.[170][171][172][173][174]


The game production has similar distribution methods to those of music and film industries.

The publisher's marketing team targets the game for a specific market and then advertises it. The team advises the developer on target demographics and market trends, as well as suggests specific features. The game is then advertised and the game's high concept is incorporated into the promotional material, ranging from magazine ads to TV spots. Communication between developer and marketing is important.

The length and purpose of a game demo depends on the purpose of the demo and target audience. A game's demo may range between a few seconds (such as clips or screenshots) to hours of gameplay. The demo is usually intended for journalists, buyers, trade shows, general public, or internal employees (who, for example, may need to familiarize with the game to promote it). Demos are produced with public relations, marketing and sales in mind, maximizing the presentation effectiveness.

Trade show demo[edit]

As a game nears completion, the publisher will want to showcase a demo of the title at trade shows. Many games have a "Trade Show demo" scheduled.[citation needed]

The major annual trade shows are, for example, Electronic Entertainment Expo (E3) or Penny Arcade Expo (PAX). E3 is the largest show in North America. E3 is hosted primarily for marketing and business deals. New games and platforms are announced at E3 and it received broad press coverage. Thousands of products are on display and press demonstration schedules are kept. In recent years E3 has become a more closed-door event and many advertisers have withdrawn, reducing E3's budget. PAX, created by authors of Penny Arcade blog and web-comic, is a mature and playful event with a player-centred philosophy.


Main article: Video game localization

A game created in one language may also be published in other countries which speak a different language. For that region, the developers may want to translate the game to make it more accessible. For example, some games created for PlayStation Vita were initially published in Japanese language, like Soul Sacrifice. Non-native speakers of the game's original language may have to wait for the translation of the game to their language. But most modern big-budget games take localization into account during the development process and the games are released in several different languages simultaneously.[citation needed]

Localization is the process of translating the language assets in a game into other languages.[181] By localizing games, they increase their level of accessibility where games could help to expend the international markets effectively. Game localization is generally known as language translations yet a "full localization" of a game is a complex project. Different levels of translation range from: zero translation being that there is no translation to the product and all things are sent raw, basic translation where only a few text and subtitles are translated or even added, and a full translation where new voice overs and game material changes are added.[citation needed]

There are various essential elements on localizing a game including translating the language of the game to adjusting in-game assets for different cultures to reach more potential consumers in other geographies (or globalization for short). Translation seems to fall into the scope of localization, which itself constitutes a substantially broader endeavor.[182] These include the different levels of translation to the globalization of the game itself. However, certain developers seem to be divided on whether globalization falls under localization or not.[citation needed]

Moreover, in order to fit into the local markets, game production companies often change or redesign the graphic designs or the packaging of the game for marketing purposes. For example, the popular game Assassin's Creed has two different packaging designs for the Japanese and US market.[183] By localizing the graphics and packaging designs, companies might arouse better connections and attention from the consumers from various regions.[citation needed]

Development costs[edit]

See also: List of most expensive video games to develop

The costs of developing a video game varies widely depending on several factors including team size, game genre and scope, and other factors such as intellectual property licensing costs. Most video game consoles also require development licensing costs which include game development kits for building and testing software. Game budgets also typically include costs for marketing and promotion, which can be on the same order in cost as the development budget.[184]

Prior to the 1990s, game development budgets, when reported, typically were on the average of US$1–5 million, with known outliers, such as the $20–25 million that Atari had paid to license the rights for E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial in addition to development costs.[185] The adoption of technologies such as 3D hardware rendering and CD-ROM integration by the mid-1990s, enabling games with more visual fidelity compared to prior titles, caused developers and publishers to put more money into game budgets as to flesh out narratives through cutscenes and full-motion video, and creating the start of the AAA video game industry. Some of the most expensive titles to develop around this time, approaching costs typical of major motion picture production budgets, included Final Fantasy VII in 1997 with an estimated budget of $40–45 million,[186] and Shenmue in 1999 with an estimated budget of $47–70 million.[187]Final Fantasy VII, with its marketing budget, had a total estimated cost of $80–145 million.[188]

Raph Koster, a video game designer and economist, evaluated published development budgets (less any marketing) for over 250 games in 2017 and reported that since the mid-1990s, there has been a type of Moore's Law in game budgets, with the average budget doubling about every five years after accounting for inflation. Koster reported average budgets were around $100 million by 2017, and could reach over $200 million by the early 2020s. Koster asserts these trends are partially tied to the technological Moore's law that gave more computational power for developers to work into their games, but also related to expectations for content from players in newer games and the number of players games are expected to draw.[189]Shawn Layden, former CEO of Sony Interactive Entertainment, affirmed that the costs for each generation of PlayStation consoles nearly doubled, with PlayStation 4 games have average budgets of $100 million and anticipating that PlayStation 5 games could reach $200 million.[190]

The rising costs of budgets of AAA games in the early 2000s led publishers to become risk-adverse, staying to titles that were most likely to be high-selling games to recoup their costs. As a result of this risk aversion, the selection of AAA games in the mid-2000s became rather similar, and gave the opportunity for indie games that provided more experimental and unique gameplay concepts to expand around that time.[191]

Indie development[edit]

Main article: Independent video game development

Independent games or indie games are produced by individuals and small teams with no large-scale developer or publisher affiliations. Indie developers generally rely on Internet distribution schemes. Many hobbyist indie developers create mods of existing games. Indie developers are credited for creative game ideas (for example, Darwinia, Weird Worlds, World of Goo). Current economic viability of indie development is questionable, however in recent years internet delivery platforms, such as, Xbox Live Arcade and Steam have improved indie game success. In fact, some indie games have become very successful, such as Braid,[195]World of Goo,[196] and Minecraft.[197] In recent years many communities have emerged in support of indie games such as the popular indie game marketplace, indie game YouTube channels and a large indie community on Steam. It is common for indie game developers to release games for free and generate revenue through other means such as microtransactions (in-game transactions), in-game advertisements and crowd-funding services like Patreon and Kickstarter.[citation needed]

Game industry[edit]

Main article: Video game industry

The video game industry (formally referred to as interactive entertainment) is the economic sector involved with the development, marketing and sale of video games. The industry sports several unique approaches.[citation needed]


United States[edit]

Further information: List of video game companies

In the United States, in the early history of video game development, the prominent locale for game development was the corridor from San Francisco to Silicon Valley in California. Most new developers in the US open near such "hot beds".

At present, many large publishers still operate there, such as: Activision Blizzard, Capcom Entertainment, Disney Interactive, Eidos Interactive, Electronic Arts, Foundation 9, LucasArts Entertainment, Namco Bandai Games, Sega of America, Sony Computer Entertainment America, THQ. However, due to the nature of game development, many publishers are present in other regions, such as Big Fish Games (Washington), GarageGames (Oregon), Majesco Entertainment (New Jersey), Microsoft Corporation (Washington), Nintendo of America (Washington), Take-Two Interactive (New York), SouthPeak Games (Virginia).


Many universities and design schools are offering classes specifically focused on game development. Some have built strategic alliances with major game development companies.[200] These alliances ensure that students have access to the latest technologies and are provided the opportunity to find jobs within the gaming industry once qualified.[citation needed] Many innovative ideas are presented at conferences, such as Independent Games Festival (IGF) or Game Developers Conference (GDC).

Indie game development may motivate students who produce a game for their final projects or thesis and may open their own game company.


Video game industry employment is fairly volatile, similar to other artistic industries including television, music, etc. Scores of game development studios crop up, work on one game, and then quickly go under. This may be one reason why game developers tend to congregate geographically; if their current studio goes under, developers can flock to an adjacent one or start another from the ground up.[citation needed]

In an industry where only the top 20% of products make a profit,[203] it's easy to understand this fluctuation. Numerous games may start development and are cancelled, or perhaps even completed but never published. Experienced game developers may work for years and yet never ship a title: such is the nature of the business.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


  1. ^"The Two Engines Driving the $120B Gaming Industry Forward". CB Insights Research. 2018-09-20. Retrieved 2020-06-03.
  2. ^Melissinos, Chris. "Video Games Are the Most Important Art Form in History". Retrieved 2020-06-09.
  3. ^ abcIrwin, Mary Jane (November 20, 2008). "Indie Game Developers Rise Up". Forbes. Retrieved January 10, 2011.
  4. ^Crossley, Rob (January 11, 2010). "Study: Average dev costs as high as $28m". Archived from the original on January 13, 2010. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
  5. ^ abcChandler 2009, p. xxi.
  6. ^ abReimer, Jeremy (November 7, 2005). "Cross-platform game development and the next generation of consoles — Introduction". Retrieved October 17, 2010.
  7. ^Chandler 2009, p. 3.
  8. ^Oxland 2004, p. 25.
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Home Décor

Home is where the heart is. And what makes the heart of your home, is you. We think you should make it show.

Your home décor gives you a chance to create a truly personal home. So, no matter if you’re quirky, relaxed, sophisticated, cool, minimalistic, maximalistic, awkward or sociable or anything in between, adding that personal touch will make your home pop.

Home décor tips and tricks

The secret to succeeding with your home interior is to choose a theme and build from that. A simple first step is to choose one base color as a foundation, and then add two to three contrasting colors and materials. It’ll narrow down your options, making it easier to know what to look for. Use mood boards to gather inspiration and see how your chosen theme and color scheme work together.

When you’ve got your theme and colors, it’s time to start decorating! This is the fun part, but it’s easy to get ahead of oneself and just put things up all over the place. To make sure that home accessories make a well thought out impression, interior designers often use a simple trick that’ll turn your room from cluttered to clean: still lifes.

From chaos to order with still lifes

Place your objects in groups of three or five (trust us, the uneven number makes all the difference), and make sure you work with different heights. For example: put three pots and plants in different sizes next to each other in your window. Or place two grey books in different sizes on top of each other, and then finish the still life off with a dark scented candle. Or try putting a bigger painting on top of a sideboard, then a smaller painting slightly in front of the first one, and finally a nice home fragrance somewhere in the middle. Those are just some examples, so make sure to play around with your accessories to find out what works best in your home.

Curate your own gallery wall as a home decoration

Another easy way to really nail your home decoration is to create a gallery wall. By using different pictures, paintings, posters, and wall art you can create something that is unique. To make sure you get a calm and unified impression, try using frames in the same color, or pictures that follow a certain color scheme. And if you’re uncertain about which frames to put where, here’s a trick that’ll save your wall from unnecessary holes. Cut out paper squares in the same sizes as your frames and place them together on the floor. Stand on a chair to get a better perspective of what works best. Move the squares around until you get a result that sparks joy.

But remember, decorations and home accessories should be fun. So interior tips and tricks aside, rules are made to be broken. Do as you please and dare to go bananas!


Family living room ideas – to create a comfortable family space that works for all

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  • Our family living room ideas are designed to keep the peace and help everyone relax. Because it’s important that everyone in the family feels at home – and nowhere more so than in the room where we come together to watch a movie or chat with our friends.

    The living room is the most sociable room in the house, so make sure it provides enough seating for the whole family, plus a few guests. If you don’t have the space for extra chairs, an upholstered or leather pouffe will do the job and can be used as a footstool when not needed as a seat. If you’re looking to buy a new armchair, check whether you have room to upgrade to a loveseat that can seat two people who are happy to snuggle up together.

    Family living room ideas

    Above all, your living room idea needs to offer comfort. If your room leaves you feeling cold, make it feel more cosy simply by adding soft texture. Plush carpet or a rug can transform the look of a room, instantly making it feel more welcoming.

    So what makes an ideal snug family living room? ‘It’s all about having that deep, cosy sofa that’s large enough for the whole family’ says Dani Burroughs, head of product for Snug. Deep sofas with plump seats adorned with a line of squashy cushions will entice the whole family to settle in and spend the evening together, rather than in separate rooms.

    A low-level table that can double up as a desk for drawing will be useful for everyone, and bean bags or knitted pouffes will serve as comfy seats for little ones. Choose hard-wearing flooring and loose-covered sofas with removable and washable covers that can stand up to a few spills.

    1. Zone areas for all the family

    living room

    Image credit: Dunelm

    Whatever ages within the family home the living room will need to cater for many different needs. From a playroom for tiny children, to a movie room for young adults and a home office for parents the modern living room idea has never worked harder! Make the space feel inclusive while retaining dedicated zones for different purposes.

    Arrange living room furniture so to dedicate an area of the room, whether large or small to ensure everyone has a place for their needs. Set up a work station at a small table in the corner of the room, away from the central hub of entertainment to avoid any distractions.

    2. Create a comfortable space for play

    family living room with red sofa and colourful check rug with wooden toys

    Image credit: Future PLC/ Malcolm Menzies

    Create an inviting space for kids to feel free to play during the day. Layer the living space with soft textures from plush rugs to cushions and blankets to create a kid friendly zone within a main living room – if your home doesn’t have the luxury of two separate living rooms. Just be sure to have a storage solution in one corner to tidy all toys away at the end of each day, to avoid it feeling like a playroom during parent’s down time in the evening.

    Dressing the space with colourful and characterful accessories is a create way to make it feel like an inviting space for all.

    3. Welcome a sizeable sofa bed

    Pink and blue living room with grey sofa bed

    Image credit: Snug

    Important for all living rooms, but especially for family livings rooms is a comfy sofa – as Danni from Snug pointed out above. It’s essential to have a sofa big enough for all the family to gather and snuggle up together.

    It’s also an added bonus with a family to have a sofa bed element incorporated into the sofa design – so little ones can lay down for a nap but still be within sight. A sofa bed is not just for families with young children, teenagers might need a place for friends to crash too.

    ‘A snug/family room isn’t the place to compromise on style,’ says Dani. ‘Go for something that’s just as luxurious to look at as it is to flop on. I’d recommend a plush corner or even a corner chaise – for ultimate TV viewing comfort.’

    Buy now: The Cloud Sundae Corner Sofa Bed, £3,369, Snug

    4. Childproof furniture for young kids

    coffee table with corner guards for safety

    Image credit: IKEA

    While you don’t want to compromise on style your furniture choices need to be thoughtful in family living room ideas with very young child. An easy way to make furniture more child-friendly is to soften the edges on coffee tables etc.

    The UNDVIKA corner bumpers ‘reduce the risk of your child getting hurt on the sharp corners of tables and cabinets’ says IKEA. Simple, effective and cheap – all the design boxes ticked for a busy family home.

    Buy now: UNDVIKA Corner Bumpers, £5 pack of 8, IKEA

    5. Create a gallery wall

    Living room with two tone green and white wall with gallery wall idea and blue sofa

    Image credit: John Lewis & Partners

    What’s the secret to this joyful living room? The bold teal sofa bed teamed with clashing, colourful cushions are a vibrant starting point. However, we think incorporating the kids artwork  into the gallery wall is a genius touch.

    This family space doesn’t take itself too seriously and the graphic and painterly prints are an ideal base for swapping in and out your kids creations with pride. The use of all black frames also gives the gallery wall a cohesive finish. If you’re renting, try Command Picture Hanging Strips for an easy, drill-free way to secure the frames to the wall.

    Buy now: Clapton Fixed Sofa Bed, £299, John Lewis & Partners

    6. Stay on top of clutter with a storage wall

    White living room with hanging wall baskets for family storage

    Image credit: Future PLC

    If storage space is at a premium or you want to avoid plastic boxes lined up in the living room, look to the wall to help clear the clutter with a savvy living room storage idea. Hang wall baskets for a quick end-of-day tidy-ups for toys, books, magazines, iPads and other stuff that tends to lay about.

    Tech can be stored out of reach in the higher baskets. Use sturdy, decorative metal hooks that can take plenty of weight.

    Buy now: Holkham Utility Baskets, £35 each, Garden Trading

    7. Set up a flexible work space

    living room with full width wooden shelves along one wall for books and display ojbects

    Image credit: Future PLC

    A full family house may mean space is at a premium and a separate room for an office or homework station just isn’t an option. To create a slimline workspace within a living room, use adjoining floating shelves within an alcove or across an empty wall. Bear in mind the shelves may be leaned on, so secure with heavy duty floating brackets.

    Using this minimalist trick in place of a desk or traditional home office furniture means it won’t intrude on the living room. Pick a comfortable and supportive chair that doesn’t look too ‘officey’ allowing it to blend into the decor of the room.

    8. Utilise every nook for storage

    neutral living room with wooden window seat in bay window

    Image credit: Future PLC

    Make the most of the floor areas in a bay window with a built-to-fit seat. Drawers under the seat add storage and are more practical than a lift-up lid.

    The storage space is perfect for the speedy tidy up before guests arrive. Give each drawer a purpose to help keep it organised. Stash anything from toys and books to tech, chargers and consoles and games.  The angled end section doubles up as a built in side table.

    9. Invest in adaptable modular furniture

    White living room with high ceiling and red curtains grey modular sofa

    Image credit: Harry Three Seat Unit And Footstool Unit In Eucalyptus Smart Cotton, £2070, X Jack Wills

    Look for a sofa that will not only seat the family plus friends for a movie marathon, but one that features hidden storage too. This double duty design is aimed at catching the eye of families and ever evolving households.

    The very flexible friend Harry, is a modular sofa made for building, mixing and matching, so you can create a chaise, a lounger or modular sofa, all with a nifty stash space beneath. So as the household grows and changes, so can the modular pieces.

    When it comes to sofa shape, Lynsey Ford, architect and designer at Lynseyforddesign; featured on BBC’s Interior Design Masters would go modular. ‘I’m always changing our house around, so I love the idea of being able to reconfigure the shape of my sofa when I fancy a rejig.’

    10. Add a hidden bed

    pink living room with taupe painted shutters and blue sofa bed

    Image credit: Bed in a Bun foldaway guest bed, £745, Loaf

    It’s hard to believe there’s a bed nestled beneath this plump perch, but this smart seat transforms into a comfortable double. A multifunctional piece like this is ideal if you don’t have space for a guest bed in a spare room or bedroom – it’s a sleepover saviour! The lid lifts to create a plush headboard. The hideaway bed is available in 150 fabrics.

    11. Spark joy with colour and pattern

    Pink living room with bright yellow l-shaped sofa

    Image credit: DFS; Yoko corner sofa in honey velvet, £1,499

    Create an inviting, family-friendly living room with a yellow sofa. The pairing of the sunny colour with the blush pink walls is a warm, contemporary combination. Pop in a spotty footstool, layered monochrome rugs and a line up of geometric cushions for a fun, graphic injection to complement the block colour upholstery.

    Mix up the print scales, from large triangles to small shifting shapes. Echo these playful shapes around the room, pick sculptural vases and accessories and streamlined lighting.

    12. Create an area that’s made for play

    White living room with piano toys and storage in one corner

    Image credit: Future PLC

    If you don’t have a separate playroom, it’s wise to dedicate one corner of your living room as a play area for the kids. Without one, toys could spread everywhere turning your entire living room into one big playroom – not ideal!

    Family living rooms require plenty of storage, so make sure everyone in the family has an assigned cupboard, drawer or trunk to hide their things inside. Make sure there is plenty of it – at the end of the day, you’ll be glad of somewhere to banish the toys so that you can enjoy some much-needed adult time.

    Here, brighter accessories added to a neutral background can be easily swapped as children get older and the function of the room changes.

    13. Add photographs

    grey living room with gallery wall of black and white photos

    Image credit: Future PLC/ Tim Young

    Personalise your living room with an arrangement of favourite family photographs. A bare expanse of wall above the sofa or a sideboard makes the ideal spot. Choose frames that are identical in size and colour, and arrange in a grid formation to make a visual impact with your living room feature wall idea.

    14. Incorporate technology

    neutral living room with wall of storage units and floating shelves

    Image credit: Future PLC

    Create a media-friendly arrangement in a family living room. Choose low units that won’t overwhelm the room and keep the wall space above feeling open by putting up simple floating shelves. ‘TV units are a great way to hide away those game consoles and controllers that can clutter a snug/family/TV room,’ says Dani, ‘and choosing something in a natural finish will help keep the space cosy.’

    Go for a pale colour scheme for furniture and walls, like this pale striped living room wallpaper idea, to give a unified look and hide all TV-related gadgetry in wicker baskets.

    15. Keep on top of clutter

    Living room with grey stripe wallpaper grey sofa and white storage unit

    Image credit: Future PLC/ Dominic Blackmore

    Create a clutter-free living room by keeping shelves orderly and free from lots of objects. Keep paraphernalia hidden in wooden storage boxes and store books and magazines neatly between stationary box files. Use the often forgotten space above the sofa a for single picture shelf to display coherent black and white family photos.

    16. Choose durable furniture

    Modern white living room with leather sofa

    Image credit: Future PLC/ James Merrell

    Who says you can’t have a stylish and sleek living room in a busy family home? Paint walls a fresh off-white in a wipeable finish and update fussy curtains with clean-lined shutters.

    Choose hardwearing leather sofas for an easy-clean option; they look even better once well loved. Then add modern glamour with a show-stopping ceiling chandelier – it will be well out of reach of little fingers!

    17. Socialise the space

    Modern open plan living room with sunken sofa

    Image credit: Future PLC

    Modern family life can be busy, so create a living room that encourages you to stop for quality family time and enjoy each other’s company. Create and intimate space within a split-level, open-plan area by adding comfortable sofas in a communal group.

    The sunken effect is very impressive and is sure to be a conversation starter. Shades of fresh white wall with pink and blue accents will keep the room bright and friendly, while dark wood flooring introduces warmth.

    18. Use family-friendly flooring

    Large bright living room with colourful rugs and sofas

    Image credit: Clare Lloyd Davies/Future PLC

    Consider the most practical living room flooring idea for your family space. Choose wooden floors for a classic look that is easy to clean. Keep it feeling snug with one large or several rugs.

    Storage is important so that bits and bobs don’t take over – a chest with lots of drawers is a good option, as each family member can have one or two of their own. The sheep is a cool quirky touch that kids will love – and it can even double as a seat when visitors are given priority on the sofa.

    19. Make room for everyone

    Extended living space with roof lantern over large l-shaped white sofa with blue bookcase and blue patterned rug

    Image credit: Future PLC

    Be sure to put a large sofa at the top of your wish list! Not only will it play a vital part in family life a corner design to accommodate everyone and save space. The layout also means there is a large floor area for children to play.

    A neutral scheme allows plenty of scope to add colour and pattern, which makes for a fun room. Check out our guides to the best sofas and best sofa beds to find a super spacious and stylish option.

    20. Get in the zone

    Modern living room with ink blue walls and owl canvas | Ideal Home

    Image credit: Future PLC/ Colin Poole

    Openplan living rooms are a great choice as the social aspect is perfect for family interaction. Design allocated zones for lounging, dining and working to keep the room organised. Use soft textures and uplifting colours, with plenty of cushions and blankets so that everyone can snuggle in comfort.

    21. Incorporate more than enough storage

    grey living room with white bookcase dressers

    Image credit: Future PLC

    Use a basic free-standing unit in multiples to create a bank of storage to fit your space and then fill them box files and colourful objects for interest. Use the space above to store rarely used items in boxes that blend in well with the walls.

    Baskets near sofas can be used for children’s toys so they are never strewn across the floor and coffee table with drawers underneath makes it easy to keep the surface clear.

    22. Make it feel cosy and appealing

    Cosy living room with warm wood and lots of texture

    Image credit: Future PLC/ Simon Whitmore

    Large squashy sofas with plump feather-filled cushions provide all the temptation needed for a relaxing cosy living room idea. Add atmosphere warming stove fire and plenty of wooden furniture.

    Woollen or linen throws folded over sofa arms will visually soften the room as well as providing warmth when needed. Every one loves a blanket so make sure there are plenty to go around.

    What is a family room vs a living room?

    Spacious homes with the luxury of a family room and a living room dedicate very different purposes to each living space. A family room will be a room dedicated to hanging out as a family to play with toys and enjoy movies and home entertainment, while a living room will be more of a formal setting for entertaining guests and enjoying some grown up time.

    Does the TV go in the living room or family room?

    ‘Where possible, we always recommend having a separate TV/family room or snug,’ says Céline Erlam, co-founder of interior design studio Indie & Co. ‘which often ends up as a more casual space than a formal living room, sometimes doubling up as a playroom.’

    ‘Nowadays, we tend to divide a house based on how its occupants will use it rather than opening everything up like we used to. We also try to avoid having a TV in the main living space as they look rather ugly and come become the focal point in a room, which is a shame.’

    How do you make furniture kid friendly?

    You can make your exiting furniture more kid-friendly by softening hard edges and corners, with simple gadgets you can pick up in hardware stores. IKEA is a great source of accessories to make furniture a bit safer around little ones. The Corner Bumpers are, in the words of IKEA, are ‘Made with the safety of children in mind, but also loved by adults. These 8 white corner bumpers reduce the risk of your child injuring themselves on sharp table edges and corners.’

    Soft surfaces are best at lower levels, to cushion any falls as small children find their feet while walking around a family living room.

    Additional research and words by Jennifer Morgan.


    Room designs indie

    From eye-catching bed setups to unexpected color palettes, there's so much to love about aesthetic room ideas. All that's needed to pull off the look is an open mind, a bit of creativity and a commitment to not skimp on style. To help you decorate a teen's bedroom, a dorm room or any other compact space that your child treasures, take a look at these fun aesthetic room ideas that caught our attention on Pinterest. Many of these Pinterest-worthy rooms feature budget-friendly decorating pointers, like hanging a graphic tapestry on the ceiling, for instance, that'll instantly get you bonus points as a parent.

    1Save These Pins

    2Bed Canopy

    Give the cottagecore aesthetic a try — and draw the eye up — by placing a canopy, which can be decked out in greenery, over the bed.

    3Weave in a Swing Chair

    Believe it or not, swing chairs aren't just for outdoors. Consider hanging one near the bed to play up your room's relaxed vibe and have a comfortable spot to read.

    4Install a Shelf Up High

    If you're trying to figure out a tasteful way to showcase a small collection of plants and artwork, consider installing a high shelf directly above your bed.

    5Incorporate an Oversized Mirror

    With a floor-length mirror like this, they won't ever run late for school again trying to put together the perfect outfit.

    6Make Use of Wood Beams

    If you're lucky enough to experience the charm of a bedroom with wood beams, why not hang plants from them? It's a great example of style and function at its best.

    7Go for a Faux Brick Wall

    Don't stress if a city apartment isn't in the cards for you. The next best thing is to create an accent wall with faux brick wallpaper.

    8Choose a Sports Theme

    Whether your child loves tennis or basketball, find a way to make their favorite sport a part of their bedroom's decor. In this case, a surfboard is propped up against a wall, bringing personality to this petite space.

    9Light Up a Gallery Wall

    Use string lights to put the spotlight on your best wall art. Add a mirror or two to make even more of an impact.

    10Posters Galore

    If you have a poster collector on your hands, showcase their best designs right next to their bed.

    11Cozy Reading Nook

    Encourage your teen to read more or adopt a more stylish approach to lounging by topping a saucer chair with playful throw pillows.

    12School Pride

    If your child is proud of their university, go ahead and make it a part of their room's decor. Hanging a school poster, mural, or oversized blanket is all it takes to pull the room together.

    13Layer Tapestries

    If you're not a fan of posters, hang a few tapestries for a graphic look.

    14Lights Over the Bed

    Hanging string lights over the bed is an easy way to add a playful touch to a room.

    15Illuminate Accessories

    String lights don't just work for walls—they're also great for framing an oversized mirror or highlighting a large plant.

    16Ceiling Plants

    If your room is fairly neutral, consider adding visual interest by hanging greenery from the ceiling.

    17Lighted Mirror

    Lean a large lighted mirror against a wall full of posters for an eye-catching look.

    18Amp Up Your Headboard

    Along with upgrading a basic headboard with string lights, try installing sconces and over-the-bed shelving to display decorative accents.

    19Go for a Pinboard

    Dress up a drab wall with a pinboard, which is perfect for showcasing your favorite photos. Take things up a notch by draping a few string lights right above it.

    20Portrait Wall

    Having a hard time choosing a few photos to showcase on your wall? Make it easy on yourself by opting for a statement-making portrait wall instead.

    21Feminine Touches

    A cable knit throw, black and white photos, and brass accessories can bring elegance to a white room.

    22Ladder Shelving

    Make the most of your space with a ladder shelf that can be used to hold plants, decorative storage containers, and more.

    23Statement Lighting

    A striking light fixture, like a starburst pendant, is ideal for giving a room an instant upgrade.

    24Colorful Daybed

    Play up a room's relaxed vibe with a daybed that's dressed up with assortment of graphic throw pillows. Mix patterns, colors, and textures to make even more of an impact.

    25Floral Accent Wall

    Embrace nature–and show off your style—by using floral wallpaper to create an Instagram-worthy accent wall.

    26Monochrome Look

    Obsessed with one color? Use it all over the entire room, from walls to furniture.

    Monique ValerisSenior Home Editor, Good HousekeepingMonique Valeris is the senior home editor for Good Housekeeping, where she covers decorating ideas, home tours, gift guides and more.

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    Now discussing:

    Aesthetically Pleasing Room Decor In 2021 Is Definitely an Indie Style Room

    Aesthetically Pleasing Room Decor In 2021

    What does indie style mean? Indie literally means "independent" and has a history dating back to the 70s, but is most often associated with the 90s.

    The main feature of the indie style in interior design is self-expression. This means that indie reflects your own "independent style" and does not fit into any well-defined category of decor.

    With such a vague definition, you might think that creating an indie style interior can be quite a challenge.

    So how do you successfully design your space in an indie style?

    Get inspired by the best indie room designs of 2021 and create a delightful space in your home.See more ideas of indie room inspiration on the topic of aesthetically pleasing indie apartment decor.The style allows you to stay creative as well as express your imagination freely.

    How to Create an Indie Style Interior?

    How to Create an Indie Style Interior

    How to make your room indie? Before following the steps below, you need to understand the basic principles of indie design, which are as follows:

    • Indie is a design approach, not a style.
    • Indie decoration is an approach rather than a style that is based on personality rather than rules.
    • Style is about giving the space the personality of the owner.
    • There are no set rules here – unlike traditional styles. Whereas in the case of conventional style, there are always certain rules on how to do something, but here it's up to the creator himself.

    That's why it's an approach for everyone, not for interior designers to create something very personal. Indie design is best for individual rooms – not entire living spaces

    You can't create the interior of an entire home in an indie style because you'll end up with a series of interesting rooms, not something coherent.

    Decor is key – focus on colors, textures, patterns and details.

    Indie room inspiration is not so much about finishing as it is about decorating, using different details, colors, textures and patterns to achieve a certain feeling and atmosphere.

    So even in our examples, we're not going to emphasize trim, but show how to make the best use of indie things for your room.

    Indie Room Decor DIY

    The whole idea of interior design in indie room art is based on "do-it-yourself" rather than just buying items off the shelf and installing them in an indie style room.

    Creativity, improvisation, experimentation and creativity are your best tools for creating a fantastic indie interior.

    When choosing a particular style, most interior designers adhere to the concept of following stylistic rules rather than personal taste, and that's generally a good way to go.

    But for indies, style is your taste.

    Even though the very spirit of indie desk decor is about breaking the rules, you still need to follow the basic principles of interior design to create a stylish look rather than a chaotic mess.

    9 Steps and Principles to Create Your Own Unique Indie Room Theme

    Create Your Own Unique Indie Room Theme

    Choosing Your Taste

    The first step to successful indie style decorating is to clearly define your taste by deciding what aspects of your personality, style and interests you want to express to create an independent style.

    For example, if you value nature and serenity, you may decide to create a "natural" indie style look that focuses on an earthy palette, natural materials (wood, wicker, natural textures, etc.).

    Accent Wallpaper

    Accent Wallpaper

    Use wallpaper to create an accent wall.

    Not an indie dorm room can be pretty bland and monotonous, so you need to bring something vibrant to it.

    The easiest way to do that is to use wallpaper. But don't forget to keep the DIY concept, so only put wallpaper on one wall, the one with the smallest area.

    If you want to go even further, you can paint the indie room wall and create a large piece of wall art. That would be ideal, but you can also stick to simple solutions.

    Clothes Rack Instead of Closet

    Clothes Rack Instead of Closet

    An open clothes rack shows off your fashion taste. Choose an open clothes rack instead of a closed closet. This way you save space and showcase your fashionable taste by adding detail and interest to the room.

    For example, such small touches can easily add charm to your indie bedroom.

    Patterned Rugs

    Adding a patterned rug or rug can give your room or bedroom the style you want.

    For example, a plain plank floor looks boring and dull.

    So you can add two patterned rugs – one in front of the bed and one to the side of the bed – although one large rug is usually the best option for most bedrooms if you want to cover the floor completely.

    One large rug is ideal. If that's not possible, then one smaller rug, properly placed, would be the next best option. But try two completely different rugs in the same room.

    Double-textured Armchairs

    It is important to furnish the room, decorate the walls and decorate the ceiling. Let's start by setting up the seating area.

    As we said, the clothes rack serves as both storage and decoration, so it is better to use it to create a comfortable place to sit in front of it.

    Choose a chair with two textures. It can be a wood texture and a green fabric.

    Suspended Lights On the Ceiling

    Suspended Lights On the Ceiling

    Lighting is an important part of an indie style room. Usually a single light is used, but you can try something different. Instead of a single light source, use pendant lights throughout the ceiling to illuminate it and create a fantastic effect. To make the room even more amazing, use a yellow warm light.

    This creates a warm, homely feeling that is soothing and peaceful, relaxing the body at the end of a long day.

    This is a solid stylistic choice that resonates with the person who is living in the room.

    If you're a fan of huge fairy lights or vintage marquees as your main lighting, hang them on the wall or above the bed. There are so many indie-style options that work for you. And they're sure to grab the attention of your guests.

    Create a Photo Wall

    Try to find lots of images: they should be the same color and style to create a cohesive installation.

    However, different frames can be used for these images.

    The indie approach should be more about individuality rather than making everything fit together.

    Vinyl Covers On the Wall

    Vinyl Covers On the Wall

    Above the bed in an indie bedroom ideas, for example, you can do something like this on vinyl covers.

    This is a great personal touch and a unique way to approach artwork, bringing to life the do-it-yourself aspect of indie design.

    Where to buy indie room decor? You can always order everything you need online.

    We can offer you the AESTHETIC ROOM DECOR site as one option.

    Plants On the Windowsill

    Plants On the Windowsill

    Plants on the windowsill complement the indie theme.

    This detail ties everything together by introducing a final green element to the interior of the indie living room.

    Bedroom Indie Decor Ideas

    Bedroom Indie Decor Ideas

    For your convenience, we also offer you indie room ideas on how to decorate your cozy indie style bedroom.

    Minimalist Design

    This is a great example of an indie approach.The bed can only come with a mattress. Everywhere you look, you'll see personal touches from the person who uses that room.

    From the plants to the painting, there are little details in every corner of the indie style room 2020.

    The real success of this design is that it shows the personality of the person who created it, but without being superfluous. You can find out what their interests are and what they like, which is the ultimate indie goal of creating a room with a vibrant personality.


    This example isn't just indie, but rather a combination of white minimalism with indie influences.

    There is a clear dominant color here, white, contrasting with the lamps and decorations. The lamps are coordinated with the carpet and wall indie bedroom decor, but they are different in tone.

    Indie-style Chaos

    Indie-style Chaos

    As with the previous option, the plants are arranged around the room, tying everything together. This is very useful in this case of indie room decor ideas where there are several different elements.

    The individual touch here is that everything is arranged as if randomly, but at the same time organized.This form of controlled chaos can be a lot of fun.


    This is also a great example of an indie approach. There's usually a lot of expressiveness here, and it's done with just a few details.

    Improvised Indie Style

    At first glance,in indie aesthetic bedroom ideas almost nothing fits together, but it makes sense. The room has a lot of personality, but it is able to be calm and chaotic at the same time.

    Now you've met the indie style! Inspired by fun patterns, muted colors and touches of vintage, this style combines your favorite trends into one combination. Decorating any room in the indie style is easier than it looks, and with our tips and ideas, you can make your wildest desires come true in even the smallest room.

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