Isopropyl alcohol molecule

Isopropyl alcohol molecule DEFAULT

Emergency and Continuous Exposure Limits for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 2 (1984)


Fregert, S., Groth, O., Gruvberger, B., Magnusson, B., Mobacken, H. and Rorsman, H. 1971. Hypersensitivity to secondary alcohols. Acta Derm. Venereol. 51:271–272.

Freireich, A.W., Cinque, T.J., Xanthaky, G., and Landau, D. 1967. Hemodialysis for isopropanol poisoning. N. Engl. J. Med. 277:699–700.

Fuller, H.C., and Hunter, O.B. 1927. Isopropyl alcohol—An investigation of its physiologic properties. J. Lab. Clinic Med. 12:326–341.


Garrison, R.F. 1953. Acute poisoning from use of isopropyl alcohol in tepid sponging. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 152:317–318.


Hueper, W.C. 1966. Occupational and Environmental Cancers of the Respiratory System. (Recent Results Cancer Res. 3) New York: Springer-Verlag. p. 105–107, 183.


International Agency for Research on Cancer. 1977. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man: Some Fumigants, the Herbicides 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, Chlorinated Dibenzodioxins and Miscellaneous Industrial Chemicals, Vol. 15. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer. 354 p.


Japanese Association of Industrial Health. 1971. Recommendation for permissible concentrations, etc. Translation of Sangyo Igaku (Jpn. J. Ind. Health) 13:475–484.

Juncos, L., and Taguchi, J.T. 1968. Isopropyl alcohol intoxication: Report of a case associated with myopathy, renal failure, and hemolytic anemia. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 204:732–734.


Kemal, H. 1927. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Schicksale des Isopropylalkohols im menschlichen Organismus. Biochem. Z. 187:461–466.

King, L.H., Jr., Bradley, K.P., and Shires, D.L., Jr. 1970. Hemodialysis for isopropyl alcohol poisoning. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 211:1855.


Laham, S., Potvin, M., Schrader, K., and Marino, I. 1980. Studies on inhalation toxicity of 2-propanol. Drug Chem. Toxicol. 3:343–60.

Lehman, A.J., and Chase, H.F. 1944. The acute and chronic toxicity of iso-PrOH. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 29:561–567. [Chem. Abs. 38:59712, 1944]

Lehman, A.J., Schwerma, H., and Rickards, E. 1945. Isopropyl alcohol. Acquired tolerance in dogs, rate of disappearance from the blood stream in various species, and effects on successive generation of rats. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 85:61–69.

Sours: https://www.nap.edu/read/690/chapter/12

Isopropyl alcohol

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  • Main ChemSpider page
  • Molecular formula: C3H8O
  • Molar mass: 60.095
  • CAS Registry Number: 67-63-0
  • Appearance: 2-Propanol, anhydrous, 99.5+%, packaged under Argon in resealable ChemSeal^t bottles; 2-Propanol, anhydrous, 99.5+%; 2-Propanol, GC Grade, 99.7+%; 2-Propanol, Spectrophotometric Grade, 99.7+%; 2-Propanol, ACS, 99.5% min; 2-Propanol, HPLC Grade, 99.7+%; 2-Propanol, 99+%; 2-Propanol, anhydrous, 99.5+%, packaged under Argon in resealable ChemSeal^t bottles; 2-Propanol, anhydrous, 99.5+%; 2-Propanol, GC Grade, 99.7+%; 2-Propanol, Spectrophotometric Grade, 99.7+%; 2-Propanol, ACS, 99.5% min; 2-Propanol, HPLC Grade, 99.7+%; 2-Propanol, 99+%; Colorless liquid with the odor of rubbing alcohol.; clear, colourless, flammable liquid with a characteristic odour
  • Melting point: -90 to -88
  • Boiling point: 82 to 82.4 °C
  • Solubility: Water, 1e+006 mg/L (25 deg C)
  • Safety sheet: Not available
  • Spectra: ChemSpider (IR (1, 2), 1H NMR (1, 2), 13C NMR (1, 2), UV (1, 2)), NMRShiftDB 13C NMR, Massbank MS (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8), also check on SDBS. Add Spectra (Help).

From Wikipedia

Alcohols, in various forms, are used within medicine as antiseptics, disinfectants, and as an antidote. Taken by mouth or injected into a vein it is used to treat methanol or ethylene glycol toxicity when fomepizole is not available. Types of alcohol used include ethanol, denatured ethanol, 1-propanol, and isopropyl alcohol. It is effective against a range of microorganisms though does not inactivate spores. Concentrations of 60 to 90% work best. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 1.80 to 9.50 USD per litre of 70% denatured ethanol. In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS about 3.90 pound per liter of 99% denatured alcohol.

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Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC name propan-2-ol), also called isopropanol or dimethyl carbinol, is a compound with the chemical formula C3H8O or C3H7OH or CH3CHOHCH3 (sometimes represented as i-PrOH). It is a colorless, flammable chemical compound with a strong odor. As a propyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, it is the simplest example of a secondary alcohol, where the alcohol carbon atom is attached to two other carbon atoms, sometimes shown as (CH3)2CHOH. It is a structural isomer of 1-propanol. It has a wide variety of industrial and household uses.

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Other names

2-Propanol (IUPAC Name); 2-hydroxypropane; 2-Propyl alcohol; Dimethyl Carbinol; IpA; i-Propyl alcohol; Isopropanol; iso-propanol; Iso-propyl alcohol; isopropylalcohol; propan-2-ol; Secondary Propyl Alcohol; sec-propanol

Sours: https://chem.libretexts.org/Under_Construction/Stalled_Project_(Not_under_Active_Development)/Walker/Chemicals/Substance_I/Isopropyl_alcohol
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Methanol3D
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Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol and wood alcohol, is the simplest of the alcohols.  The name is derived from the Greek words "methy" (wine) and "hule" (wood).  Methanol is is found in wood smoke, and contributes to the odor of wine.  It is metabolized in the body to produce formaldehyde and formic acid, and is toxic if more than 50 mL is consumed; smaller amounts can cause blindness.

Industrially, methanol is produced from synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen derived from coke (the coal, not the soda) or methane.  Methanol is used as the fuel in some racing cars, and is being investigated as an renewable alternative to the use of petroleum-based fuels.  The main use of methanol, however, is in the manufacture of other chemicals, such as formaldehyde, which is used in the manufacture of plastics, paints, plywood, etc.

     Ethanol3D
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Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol and grain alcohol, is the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages.  The fermentation of the sugars found in honey, grain, or fruit juices by yeasts to yield beers and wines was probably the first chemical reaction to be discovered.

Ethanol can be purified and concentrated by fractional distillation, but ethanol and water form an constant-boiling azeotrope at a concentration of 95% ethanol and 5% water which cannot be separated by distillation; absolute ethanol, which contains no water, is produced by fractional distillation of 95% ethanol with small amounts of benzene.  Ethanol that is intended for industrial use is "denatured" (rendered unfit for human consumption) by adding small amounts of methanol, denatonium benzoate, or other unpleasant or toxic substances, which exempts the alcohol from liquor taxes.

Ethanol is metabolized in the body, primarily by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase, to produce acetaldehyde; the buildup of acetaldehyde in the blood is one of the factors which contributes to the symptoms of a hangover.  Physiologically, ethanol acts as a depressant, but since it frees parts of the cortex from inhibitory controls, to its consumer, it seems to be a stimulant.

Ethanol is a primary (1º) alcohol, and is easily oxidized by mild oxidizing agents, such as chromic acid (H2CrO4) or potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), in which the chromium is in the +6 oxidation state.  These substances undergo a distinct color change on reaction with ethanol:  in the +6 oxidation state chromium compounds are typically a dark reddish-orange color; after the alcohol is oxidized, the chromium is reduced to the +3 oxidation state, which is green.  The color change from red-orange to green forms the basis of some of the simple breathalyzer tests that are used to test motorists who are suspected of driving while drunk.

Ethanol can also be oxidized in air, forming acetic acid, the active ingredient in vinegar.  Alcoholic beverages that are not stored properly can end up tasting like vinegar because of the formation of acetic acid (see entry for acetic acid).

     1-Propanol (Propyl alcohol)3D
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1-Propanol, or propyl alcohol, is a three-carbon alcohol with the OH group on an end carbon.  Its structural isomer, 2-propanol, is described below.

     2-Propanol (Isopropyl alcohol)3D
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2-Propanol, or isopropyl alcohol, is a three-carbon alcohol with the OH group on the middle carbon.  Isopropyl alcohol is a secondary alcohol,   Rubbing alcohol is a solution of 70% isopropyl alcohol and 30% water, which is commonly used in sterilizing swabs and disinfectants.

Isopropyl alcohol is a secondary (2º) alcohol, and is easily oxidized by mild oxidizing agents.

     1-Butanol (Butyl alcohol)3D
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1-Butanol, or butyl alcohol, is a four-carbon chain, with the OH group on an end carbon.  It is used as a solvent and a paint thinner, and has some potential use as a biofuel.

Butyl alcohol is a primary (1º) alcohol, and is easily oxidized.

There are three other structural isomers of 1-butanol:  2-butanol (sec-butyl alcohol), 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutyl alcohol), and 2-methyl-2-propanol (tert-butyl alcohol).

     2-Butanol (sec-Butyl alcohol)3D
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2-Butanol, or sec-butanol, or sec-butyl alcohol, or s-butyl alcohol, is a four-carbon chain, with the OH group on the second carbon.  (Since the alcoholic carbon is connected to two other carbons, it is secondary, hence the prefix "sec".)  It is used as a solvent and an intermediate in the manufacture of other compounds.

sec-Butyl alcohol is a secondary (2º) alcohol, and is easily oxidized.

2-Butanol is a chiral compound, and exists in two enantiomeric forms:  (R)-2-butanol and (S)-2-butanol:

The 3D structure shown above is the R stereoisomer.    2-Methyl-1-propanol (Isobutyl alcohol)3D
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2-Methyl-1-propanol, or isobutanol, or isobutyl alcohol, is a three-carbon chain, with the OH group on and end carbon and a methyl group on the middle carbon.  It is used as a solvent, in paints and inks, and in the manufacture of some coatings and varnishes.

Isobutyl alcohol is a primary (1º) alcohol, and is easily oxidized.

     2-Methyl-2-propanol (tert-Butyl alcohol)3D
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2-Methyl-2-propanol, or tert-butanol, or tert-butyl alcohol, or t-butyl alcohol, is a three-carbon chain, with the OH group and a methyl group on the middle carbon.  (Since the alcoholic carbon is connected to three other carbons, it is tertiary, hence the prefix "tert".)  It is used as a solvent, a denaturant for ethanol, as an octane booster in gasoline, and in some pain thinners.

tert-Butyl alcohol is a tertiary (3º) alcohol, and does not react with oxidizing agents.  It is useful in organic synthesis, in the form of the t-butoxide anion, which is generated by the reaction of tert-butanol with sodium or a strong base such as sodium hydride, which removes the slightly acidic hydrogen from the OH group, leaving behind a negative charge on the oxygen.  The t-butoxide anion is a strong base, but its steric bulk makes it slow to participate in nucleophilic substitution reactions, making it more likely to participate in elimination reactions.

     Ethylene glycol (1,2-Ethanediol)3D
Download 3D1,2-Ethanediol, better known as ethylene glycol, is an alcohol which contains two OH groups.  Molecules which contain two OH groups on adjacent carbons are often known as glycols.  It is a viscous, colorless, odorles liquid, with a sweet taste.  It is miscible with water, since there are two locations on the molecule which can form hydrogen bonds with water.  It has an extremely high boiling point for such a small molecule, 197°C; this is because these molecules can form more than one set of hydrogen bonds to each other.

Ethylene glycol is produced industrially from ethylene:  the ethylene is oxidized to form ethylene oxide, which reacts with water to produce ethylene glycol.  It is used in the manufacture of they polyester polyethylene terephthalane (PET), and also to remove water vapor from natural gas.

Ethylene glycol is used in antifreeze — pure ethylene glycol freezes at -12.9°C (8.8°F), but a 50:50 mixture of ethylene glycol and water freezes at around -40°C (-40°F).  It is also used as an airplane de-icer, a humectant (an anti-drying agent that keeps other substances moist), used in ball point pen inks.

Ethylene glycol is toxic; in the body it is metabolized into glycolic acid (if one alcohol group is oxidized to a carboxylic acid) and oxalic acid (if both alcohol groups are oxidized), which can cause irregular heartbeat and respiration, and kidney failure.  The antidote for ethylene glycol poisoning is ethanol:  since ethanol competes for the same alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme that metabolizes ethylene glycol, flooding the body with alcohol can help to flush the ethylene glycol out of the system.

     Propylene glycol (1,2-Propanediol)3D
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1,2-Propanediol, or propylene glycol, is a tasteless, odorless, clear liquid.  Like ethylene glycol, it is miscible with water, because of hydrogen bonding.  It is used in antifreeze, as a moisturizer in lotions, foods, and some medicines and cosmetics, and as a solvent for food dyes.  It is also used to make artificial smoke.

     Glycerol / Glycerin (1,2,3-Propanetriol)3D  

1,2,3-Propanetriol, better known as glycerol or glycerin, is a viscous, colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting liquid.  It is used as an emollient (softening agent) in cosmetics; as a humectant (anti-drying agent) in toothpaste, candies, medicines, tobacco (where it keeps leaves from drying and crumbling), and glues (prevent glue from drying in the bottle). It is also used in some plastics, especially cellophane, as a plasticizer to keep the plastic soft and pliable. Glycerol also contributes to the sweet, smooth taste of some wines.  Because it can form three sets of hydrogen bonds, it is extremely soluble in water, and has a very high boiling point (290°C).

Glycerol combines with fatty acids (long-chain carboxylic acids) to make an series of biologically important molecules called the triglycerides (fats and oils).


Download 3D    Benzyl alcohol3D
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Benzyl alcohol, or phenylmethanol, is used in perfumes, flavors, soaps, cosmetics, ointments, and ball point pen inks; it is also used in some anti-itching medications.

     Cinnamic alcohol3D
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Cinnamic alcohol, or cinnamyl alcohol, is found in cinnamon leaves (hence the name), usually in the form of an ester; it is also found in Tolu balsam, the resin of the Myroxylon toluifera tree.  It has an odor similar to that of hyacinth, and is used in perfumes (particularly in lilac and other floral scents), deodorants, flavoring agent, soaps, and cosmetics.

     Diethylene glycol3D
Download 3DDiethylene glycol (DEG) is a colorless, odorless, toxic liquid used as an industrial solvent, and in the synthesis of other organic molecules.  It is also used as a humectant for tobacco, and some inks and glues.

In 1937, the S.E. Massengill Co. marketed sulfanilamide (a sulfa drug) dissolved in diethylene glycol as "Elixir Sulfanilamide"; over a hundred people died of poisoning by the DEG, and this incident catalyzed the passage of the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which greatly expanded the power of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to regulate the safety of foods, medicines, and cosmetics.  Several other cases of DEG poisoning have resulted from DEG either being added to wines in an attempt to sweeten them, or because of its presence in improperly purified medications and cosmetics.  In May of 2007, several cheap brands of toothpaste originating in China were removed from the market in several countries because they were found to be contaminated with DEG (labeled on the containers as "glycerine").

     Grandisol3D
Download 3DGrandisol, or (+)-(1R,2S)-1-(2'-hydroxyethyl)-1-methyl-2-isopropenylcyclobutane, is a pheromone which acts as the sex attractant of the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and some related insects.  It is used in a insecticide called grandlure, which attracts and traps or kills these damaging insects.      Cyclohexanol3D
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Cyclohexanol is a cyclic, secondary alcohol.  It is used in some organic synthesis reactions, in the manufacture of celluloid, textiles, and some insecticides.

     
Sours: https://www.angelo.edu/faculty/kboudrea/molecule_gallery/05_alcohols/00_alcohols.htm

Isopropyl alcohol

simplest secondary alcohol

Skeletal formula of isopropyl alcohol
Ball-and-stick model of isopropyl alcohol
Names
Preferred IUPAC name

Propan-2-ol[2]

Other names

2-Propanol
Isopropanol[1]
Rubbing alcohol
sec-Propyl alcohol
2-Hydroxypropane
i-PrOH
Dimethyl carbinol
IPA

Identifiers

CAS Number

3D model (JSmol)

Beilstein Reference

635639
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard100.000.601Edit this at Wikidata

Gmelin Reference

1464
KEGG

PubChemCID

RTECS number
UNII
UN number1219

CompTox Dashboard(EPA)

InChI

  • InChI=1S/C3H7OH/c1-3(2)4/h3-4H,1-2H3 checkY
    Key: KFZMGEQAYNKOFK-UHFFFAOYSA-N checkY
Properties

Chemical formula

C3H8O
Molar mass60.096 g/mol
Appearance Colorless liquid
OdorPungent alcoholic odor
Density0.786 g/cm3 (20 °C)
Melting point −89 °C (−128 °F; 184 K)
Boiling point 82.6 °C (180.7 °F; 355.8 K)

Solubility in water

Miscible with water
SolubilityMiscible with benzene, chloroform, ethanol, ether, glycerin; soluble in acetone
log P−0.16[3]
Acidity (pKa) 16.5[4]

Magnetic susceptibility (χ)

−45.794·10−6 cm3/mol

Refractive index (nD)

1.3776
Viscosity2.86 cP at 15 °C
1.96 cP at 25 °C[5]
1.77 cP at 30 °C[5]

Dipole moment

1.66 D (gas)
Pharmacology

ATC code

D08AX05 (WHO)
Hazards
Main hazardsFlammable
Safety data sheetSee: data page
External MSDS
GHS pictogramsGHS07: HarmfulGHS02: Flammable
GHS Signal wordDanger

GHS hazard statements

H225, H319, H336

GHS precautionary statements

P210, P261, P305+351+338
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Flash pointOpen cup: 11.7 °C (53.1 °F; 284.8 K)
Closed cup: 13 °C (55 °F)

Autoignition
temperature

399 °C (750 °F; 672 K)
Explosive limits2–12.7%

Threshold limit value (TLV)

980 mg/m3 (TWA), 1225 mg/m3 (STEL)
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):

LD50 (median dose)

  • 12800 mg/kg (dermal, rabbit)[citation needed]
  • 3600 mg/kg (oral, mouse)
  • 5045 mg/kg (oral, rat)
  • 6410 mg/kg (oral, rabbit)[7]

LC50 (median concentration)

LCLo (lowest published)

  • 16,000 ppm (rat, 4 h)
  • 12,800 ppm (mouse, 3 h)[7]
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):

PEL (Permissible)

TWA 400 ppm (980 mg/m3)[6]

REL (Recommended)

TWA 400 ppm (980 mg/m3), ST 500 ppm (1225 mg/m3)[6]

IDLH (Immediate danger)

2000 ppm[6]
Related compounds

Related alcohols

1-Propanol, ethanol, 2-butanol
Supplementary data page

Structure and
properties

Refractive index (n),
Dielectric constant (εr), etc.

Thermodynamic
data

Phase behaviour
solid–liquid–gas

Spectral data

UV, IR, NMR, MS

Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

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Infobox references

Chemical compound

Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC name propan-2-ol and also called isopropanol or 2-propanol) is a colorless, flammablechemical compound (chemical formula CH3CHOHCH3) with a strong odor.[8] As an isopropyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, it is the simplest example of a secondary alcohol, where the alcohol carbon atom is attached to two other carbon atoms. It is a structural isomer of 1-propanol and ethyl methyl ether.

It is used in the manufacture of a wide variety of industrial and household chemicals and is a common ingredient in chemicals such as antiseptics, disinfectants, and detergents.

Properties[edit]

Isopropyl alcohol is miscible in water, ethanol, ether, and chloroform. It dissolves ethyl cellulose, polyvinyl butyral, many oils, alkaloids, gums and natural resins.[9] Unlike ethanol or methanol, isopropyl alcohol is not miscible with salt solutions and can be separated from aqueous solutions by adding a salt such as sodium chloride. The process is colloquially called salting out, and causes concentrated isopropyl alcohol to separate into a distinct layer.[10]

Isopropyl alcohol forms an azeotrope with water, which gives a boiling point of 80.37 °C (176.67 °F) and a composition of 87.7% by mass (91% by volume) isopropyl alcohol. Water–isopropyl alcohol mixtures have depressed melting points.[10] It has a slightly bitter taste, and is not safe to drink.[10][11]

Isopropyl alcohol becomes increasingly viscous with decreasing temperature and freezes at −89 °C (−128 °F).

Isopropyl alcohol has a maximal absorbance at 205 nm in an ultraviolet–visible spectrum.[12][13]

Reactions[edit]

Isopropyl alcohol can be oxidized to acetone, which is the corresponding ketone. This can be achieved using oxidizing agents such as chromic acid, or by dehydrogenation of isopropyl alcohol over a heated copper catalyst:

(CH3)2CHOH → (CH3)2CO + H2

Isopropyl alcohol is often used as both solvent and hydride source in the Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reduction and other transfer hydrogenation reactions. Isopropyl alcohol may be converted to 2-bromopropane using phosphorus tribromide, or dehydrated to propene by heating with sulfuric acid.

Like most alcohols, isopropyl alcohol reacts with active metals such as potassium to form alkoxides that can be called isopropoxides. The reaction with aluminium (initiated by a trace of mercury) is used to prepare the catalyst aluminium isopropoxide.[14]

History[edit]

In 1920, Standard Oil first produced isopropyl alcohol by hydrating propene. Isopropyl alcohol was oxidized to acetone for the preparation of cordite, a smokeless, low explosive propellant.[15]

Production[edit]

In 1994, 1.5 million tonnes of isopropyl alcohol were produced in the United States, Europe, and Japan.[16] It is primarily produced by combining water and propene in a hydration reaction or by hydrogenating acetone.[16][17] There are two routes for the hydration process and both processes require that the isopropyl alcohol be separated from water and other by-products by distillation. Isopropyl alcohol and water form an azeotrope, and simple distillation gives a material that is 87.9% by mass isopropyl alcohol and 12.1% by mass water.[18] Pure (anhydrous) isopropyl alcohol is made by azeotropic distillation of the wet isopropyl alcohol using either diisopropyl ether or cyclohexane as azeotroping agents.[16]

Biological[edit]

Small amounts of isopropyl alcohol are produced in the body in diabetic ketoacidosis.[19]

Indirect hydration[edit]

Indirect hydration reacts propene with sulfuric acid to form a mixture of sulfate esters. This process can use low-quality propene, and is predominant in the USA. These processes give primarily isopropyl alcohol rather than 1-propanol, because adding water or sulfuric acid to propene follows Markovnikov's rule. Subsequent hydrolysis of these esters by steam produces isopropyl alcohol, by distillation. Diisopropyl ether is a significant by-product of this process; it is recycled back to the process and hydrolyzed to give the desired product.[16]

CH3CH=CH2 + H2O H2SO4⟶ (CH3)2CHOH

Direct hydration[edit]

See also: Heteropoly acid

Direct hydration reacts propene and water, either in gas or liquid phase, at high pressures in the presence of solid or supported acidic catalysts. This type of process usually requires higher-purity propylene (> 90%).[16] Direct hydration is more commonly used in Europe.

Hydrogenation of acetone[edit]

Isopropyl alcohol may be prepared via the hydrogenation of acetone, however this approach involves an extra step compared to the above methods, as acetone is itself normally prepared from propene via the cumene process.[16] It may remain economical depending on the value of the products. A known issue is the formation of MIBK and other self-condensation products. Raney nickel was one of the original industrial catalysts, modern catalysts are often supported bimetallic materials. This is an efficient process and easy

Uses[edit]

In 1990, 45,000 metric tonnes of isopropyl alcohol were used in the United States, mostly as a solvent for coatings or for industrial processes. In that year, 5400 metric tonnes were used for household purposes and in personal care products. Isopropyl alcohol is popular in particular for pharmaceutical applications,[16] due to its low toxicity. Some isopropyl alcohol is used as a chemical intermediate. Isopropyl alcohol may be converted to acetone, but the cumene process is more significant. [16]

Solvent[edit]

Isopropyl alcohol dissolves a wide range of non-polar compounds. It also evaporates quickly, leaves nearly zero oil traces, compared to ethanol, and is relatively non-toxic, compared to alternative solvents. Thus, it is used widely as a solvent and as a cleaning fluid, especially for dissolving oils. Together with ethanol, n-butanol, and methanol, it belongs to the group of alcohol solvents.

Isopropyl alcohol is commonly used for cleaning eyeglasses, electrical contacts, audio or video tape heads, DVD and other optical disc lenses, removing thermal paste from heatsinks on CPUs and other IC packages.

Intermediate[edit]

Isopropyl alcohol is esterified to give isopropyl acetate, another solvent. It reacts with carbon disulfide and sodium hydroxide to give sodium isopropylxanthate, a herbicide and an ore flotation reagent.[20] Isopropyl alcohol reacts with titanium tetrachloride and aluminium metal to give titanium and aluminium isopropoxides, respectively, the former a catalyst, and the latter a chemical reagent.[16] This compound may serve as a chemical reagent in itself, by acting as a dihydrogen donor in transfer hydrogenation.

Medical[edit]

Rubbing alcohol, hand sanitizer, and disinfecting pads typically contain a 60–70% solution of isopropyl alcohol or ethanol in water. Water is required to open up membrane pores of bacteria, which acts as a gateway for isopropyl alcohol. A 75% v/v solution in water may be used as a hand sanitizer.[21] Isopropyl alcohol is used as a water-drying aid for the prevention of otitis externa, better known as swimmer's ear.[22]

Early uses as an anesthetic[edit]

Although isopropyl alcohol can be used for anesthesia, its many negative attributes or drawbacks prohibit this use. Isopropyl alcohol can also be used similarly to either as a solvent[23] or as an anesthetic by inhaling the fumes or orally. Early uses included using the solvent as general anesthetic for small mammals[24] and rodents by scientists and some veterinarians. However, it was soon discontinued, as many complications arose, including respiratory irritation, internal bleeding, and visual and hearing problems. In rare cases, respiratory failure leading to death in animals was observed.

Automotive[edit]

Isopropyl alcohol is a major ingredient in "gas dryer" fuel additives. In significant quantities, water is a problem in fuel tanks, as it separates from gasoline and can freeze in the supply lines at low temperatures. Alcohol does not remove water from gasoline, but the alcohol solubilizes water in gasoline. Once soluble, water does not pose the same risk as insoluble water, as it no longer accumulates in the supply lines and freezes but is dissolved within the fuel itself. Isopropyl alcohol is often sold in aerosol cans as a windshield or door lock deicer. Isopropyl alcohol is also used to remove brake fluid traces from hydraulic braking systems, so that the brake fluid (usually DOT 3, DOT 4, or mineral oil) does not contaminate the brake pads and cause poor braking. Mixtures of isopropyl alcohol and water are also commonly used in homemade windshield washer fluid.

Laboratory[edit]

As a biological specimen preservative, isopropyl alcohol provides a comparatively non-toxic alternative to formaldehyde and other synthetic preservatives. Isopropyl alcohol solutions of 70–99% are used to preserve specimens.

Isopropyl alcohol is often used in DNA extraction. A lab worker adds it to a DNA solution to precipitate the DNA, which then forms a pellet after centrifugation. This is possible because DNA is insoluble in isopropyl alcohol.

Safety[edit]

Isopropyl alcohol vapor is denser than air and is flammable, with a flammability range of between 2 and 12.7% in air. It should be kept away from heat and open flame.[25] Distillation of isopropyl alcohol over magnesium has been reported to form peroxides, which may explode upon concentration.[26][27] Isopropyl alcohol causes eye irritation[25] and is a potential allergen.[28][29] Wearing protective gloves is recommended.

Toxicology[edit]

Isopropyl alcohol, via its metabolites, is somewhat more toxic than ethanol, but considerably less toxic than ethylene glycol or methanol. Death from ingestion or absorption of even relatively large quantities is rare. Both Isopropanol and its metabolite, acetone, act as central nervous system (CNS) depressants.[30] Poisoning can occur from ingestion, inhalation, or skin absorption. Symptoms of isopropyl alcohol poisoning include flushing, headache, dizziness, CNS depression, nausea, vomiting, anesthesia, hypothermia, low blood pressure, shock, respiratory depression, and coma.[30] Overdoses may cause a fruity odor on the breath as a result of its metabolism to acetone.[31] Isopropyl alcohol does not cause an anion gap acidosis, but it produces an osmolal gap between the calculated and measured osmolalities of serum, as do the other alcohols.[30]

Isopropyl alcohol is oxidized to form acetone by alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver[30] and has a biological half-life in humans between 2.5 and 8.0 hours.[30] Unlike methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning, the metabolites of isopropyl alcohol are considerably less toxic, and treatment is largely supportive. Furthermore, there is no indication for the use of fomepizole, an alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor, unless co-ingestion with methanol or ethylene glycol is suspected.[32]

In forensic pathology, people who have died as a result of diabetic ketoacidosis usually have blood concentrations of isopropyl alcohol of tens of mg/dL, while those by fatal isopropyl alcohol ingestion usually have blood concentrations of hundreds of mg/dL.[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^"Alcohols Rule C-201.1". Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry (The IUPAC 'Blue Book'), Sections A, B, C, D, E, F, and H. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 1979.
  2. ^Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry : IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book). Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry. 2014. p. 631. doi:10.1039/9781849733069. ISBN .
  3. ^"Isopropanol_msds". chemsrc.com.
  4. ^Reeve, W.; Erikson, C. M.; Aluotto, P. F. (1979). "A new method for the determination of the relative acidities of alcohols in alcoholic solutions. The nucleophilicities and competitive reactivities of alkoxides and phenoxides". Can. J. Chem. 57 (20): 2747–2754. doi:10.1139/v79-444.
  5. ^ abYaws, C.L. (1999). Chemical Properties Handbook. McGraw-Hill. ISBN .
  6. ^ abcNIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0359". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  7. ^ abc"Isopropyl alcohol". Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  8. ^"Isopropanol". PubChem. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
  9. ^Doolittle, Arthur K. (1954). The Technology of Solvents and Plasticizers. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 628.
  10. ^ abcThe Merck Index (10th ed.). Rahway, NJ: Merck & Co. 1983. p. 749.
  11. ^Logsden, John E.; Loke, Richard A. (1999). "Propyl Alcohols". In Jacqueline I., Kroschwitz (ed.). Kirk-Othmer Concise Encylclopedia of Chemical Technology (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 1654–1656. ISBN .
  12. ^"Isopropyl Alcohol, UltimAR, Suitable for Liquid Chromatography, Extract/Conc, UV-Spectrophotometry". VWR International. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  13. ^"UV Cutoff"(PDF). University of Toronto. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  14. ^Young, W.; Hartung, W.; Crossley, F. (1936). "Reduction of Aldehydes with Aluminum Isopropoxide". J. Am. Chem. Soc.58: 100–2. doi:10.1021/ja01292a033.
  15. ^Wittcoff, M. M.; Green, H. A. (2003). Organic chemistry principles and industrial practice (1. ed., 1. reprint. ed.). Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. p. 4. ISBN .
  16. ^ abcdefghiPapa, A. J. "Propanols". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a22_173.
  17. ^Logsdon, John E.; Loke, Richard A. (December 4, 2000). "Isopropyl Alcohol". Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Kirk‑Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. doi:10.1002/0471238961.0919151612150719.a01. ISBN .
  18. ^CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 44th ed. pp. 2143–2184.
  19. ^ abPetersen, Thomas H.; Williams, Timothy; Nuwayhid, Naziha; Harruff, Richard (2012). "Postmortem Detection of Isopropanol in Ketoacidosis". Journal of Forensic Sciences. 57 (3): 674–678. doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2011.02045.x. ISSN 0022-1198. PMID 22268588. S2CID 21101240.
  20. ^"Sodium Isopropyl Xanthate, SIPX, Xanthate". 3DChem.com. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
  21. ^"Guide to Local Production: WHO-recommended Handrub Formulations"(PDF). World Health Organization. August 2009.
  22. ^Otitis Externa (Swimmers Ear). Medical College of Wisconsin.
  23. ^Burlage, Henry M.; Welch, H.; Price, C. W. (2006). "Pharmaceutical applications of isopropyl alcohol II. Solubilities of local anesthetics". Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 36 (1): 17–19. doi:10.1002/jps.3030360105. PMID 20285822.
  24. ^Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine (1922). Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, Volume 19. p. 85.
  25. ^ ab"Isopropanol". Sigma-Aldrich. 19 January 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
  26. ^Mirafzal, Gholam A.; Baumgarten, Henry E. (1988). "Control of peroxidizable compounds: An addendum". Journal of Chemical Education. 65 (9): A226. Bibcode:1988JChEd..65A.226M. doi:10.1021/ed065pA226.
  27. ^"Chemical safety: peroxide formation in 2-propanol". Chemical & Engineering News. 94 (31): 2. August 1, 2016.
  28. ^García-Gavín, Juan; Lissens, Ruth; Timmermans, Ann; Goossens, An (2011-06-17). "Allergic contact dermatitis caused by isopropyl alcohol: a missed allergen?". Contact Dermatitis. 65 (2): 101–106. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.2011.01936.x. ISSN 0105-1873. PMID 21679194. S2CID 42577253.
  29. ^McInnes, A. (1973-02-10). "Skin reaction to isopropyl alcohol". British Medical Journal. 1 (5849): 357. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5849.357-c. ISSN 0007-1447. PMC 1588210. PMID 4265463.
  30. ^ abcdeSlaughter R. J., Mason R. W., Beasley D. M., Vale J. A., Schep L. J. (2014). "Isopropanol poisoning". Clinical Toxicology. 52 (5): 470–8. doi:10.3109/15563650.2014.914527. PMID 24815348. S2CID 30223646.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  31. ^Kalapos, M. P. (2003). "On the mammalian acetone metabolism: from chemistry to clinical implications". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects. 1621 (2): 122–39. doi:10.1016/S0304-4165(03)00051-5. PMID 12726989.
  32. ^"Isopropyl alcohol poisoning". uptodate.com. Retrieved 2017-10-10.

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isopropyl_alcohol

Alcohol molecule isopropyl

I don't have the strength to lower my hand. Hit. How painful !!. The cord flew right to the clitoris.

iupac name of isopropyl alcohol In Hindi - iupac nomenclature of organic chemistry - iupac name

She must have broken down and started waving at me and got very wet, my pubis was just wet from her secretions. But she still didn't look me in the eye and breathed loudly. I fucked her for about 20 minutes, she finished a couple of times, the nipples were stuck, as soon as I licked them she.

Now discussing:

She got up and was numb from what she saw. I continued to fry the boss in my mouth and look at Nastya. The boss pushed me away and looked at the girl, and the secretary came. It seemed ridiculous to me, but I didnt show it.



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