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The Complete Guide to Mall of America

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Mall of America. Located in the town of Bloomington, Minnesota, it’s a place you’re intrinsically familiar with, like Disneyland or Texas, even if you’ve never actually set foot in there. However big you think it is, think bigger. Stats on the mall are both staggering and patriotic; it is the size of nine Yankee stadiums or 347 Statues of Liberty, and could fit each of Mount Rushmore’s busts in its individual wings.

However traditional you think it is, think again. While on one hand it’s a place where the decades-old Great Steak and Potato Company still exists, on the other it’s a forward-thinking, environmentally friendly phenomenon.

And however you think you can conquer it, you probably won’t. At 5.6 million square feet, with one loop on one floor clocking in at over one mile, it’s a shopping bonanza that’s massive by design but somehow doesn’t feel completely overwhelming.

And yet,it’s so much more than a mall. Here, you can buy a mattress, massage, manicure, or text messaging plan from any carrier. You can get married in its Chapel of Love, load up on armfuls of baby clothing, and later become an AARP member, experiencing the full spectrum of life under its skylight-lined roof. You can spin upside down on rides, swim with sharks, or get a shave while just-bought jeans are hemmed at an on-site tailor. At Mall of America, it’s all an indoor dream come true.

While you can’t expect to experience everything in one trip, if you follow our guidelines, you’ll shop, drop, and hopefully leave in time for your connecting flight.

Peruse the full guide or use the index below to find exactly what you’re after, whether it’s a day-by-day itinerary, a short list of the best stores, or tips on how to take advantage of the mall’s discounts.

  • The Basics
  • The Stores You Can't Miss
  • Where to Stay
  • Where to Eat
  • Things to Do
  • Discounts & Coupons
  • Itineraries

  • Located just 15 minutes from downtown Minneapolis and St. Paul and six miles from the Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport, Mall of America is extremely easy to get to. The twenty-minute Metro Transit Light Rail trip between the airport and the mall costs $1.75 (or $2.25 during weekday rush hours) each way, or layover visitors could opt for a taxi. Uber now has an official partnership with MOA, hosting pickup and drop-off zones throughout.

    If you choose to drive yourself, there is ample parking, and the mall includes parking suggestions near every store, restaurant, and experience in its directory. Nearby hotels may offer shuttles, too, so be sure to inquire directly.

    The mall consists of four floors: Levels 1 and 2 are primarily shopping, but the open atrium at the center of Level 1 is where the Nickelodeon Universe theme park is located; Level 3 is a mix of shops, two food courts, and the majority of MOA’s restaurants; Level 4, the smallest floor, has a handful of restaurants as well as a movie theatre.

    Don’t bother studying the map; you’ll know what’s east and south but when you’re actually walking around, it’s tough to determine which way is which. Instead, try to embrace it. You’ll turn right four times yet somehow not end up where you started, and that’s part of the fun.

    A few tips: It’s often quicker to go down to the first floor and cut across the Nickelodeon Universe than it is to walk back through the mall’s corridors. Use the Ferris wheel as your North Star. There are very few directional signs, and it’s the only thing you can see from all corners of the mall to help point you in the right direction.

    To help find what you’re looking for, download the Mall of America app (which we found pretty helpful), utilize MOA’s text concierge (1-952-479-4839), and of course, keep our guide handy.

    The largest mall in North America has plenty of must-sees, butthe biggest mall doesn’t necessarily mean the biggest stores or widest selection. Square footage per shop can be smaller than your regular mall, which in turn can mean less merchandise and decreased sale offerings. Places like Madewell and Anthropologie stick more to their core offerings, bringing less third-party items to these stores than their urban counterparts; even the stock at H&M and Urban Outfitters here feels restrained.

    If you’re looking to outsmart Midwestern shoppers by garnering steals on swanky goods, look elsewhere, as most stores don’t cater to luxury audiences. Still, who says being deliciously pedestrian is a bad thing? There’s at least one of everything you can dream of, a plethora of style options, and a handful of stores you truly can’t miss, even if you’re only popping into the mall to grab one thing.

    Crayola Experience Store
    If you’re the type of person who is soothed by things organized neatly, this souvenir shop outside the colorful attraction will be your Container Store-style happy place. You can pick candy from delightfully color-coordinated bulk bins, build your own crayon box, or even fill a vintage-designed tin with a lifetime stash of Purple Mountains Majesty, if you see fit.

    This brand new Mall of America-owned and -operated concept store offers clothing, accessories, and home goods from a shortlist of designers not represented elsewhere throughout the mall. With a design and focus that rotates throughout the year, it’s ever-changing; at press time, Woolrich heritage outerwear, Billykirk leather goods, and New York designer Todd Snyder’s collaboration with Champion were among the impressive roster of brands on display.

    Lululemon Athletica
    Sure, this brand is everywhere, but Mall of America’s outpost had the most robust sale section I’ve ever seen at a Lululemon in my life. With ample styles and a selection that was far from picked over, this one’s a worthy stop, whether or not you make it into the mall first-hand. (If you can’t find something at a store back home, consider calling here directly and having them ship it out!)

    This intensely Midwestern outpost is a one-stop shop not only for souvenirs you didn’t know you wanted, but also for ones you never expected they’d have. Pick up themed foods, throwback travel stickers, or even a tea towel dedicated to regional hot dishes, the state’s famous casseroles. Mall of America has a few state-themed stores, but don’t bother with the others — this Level 1 outpost has more unique offerings than Love From Minnesota and I Love Minnesota, two similar but inferior options on the third floor.

    Nordstrom Rack
    The Rack is your best bet for designer deals at the mall (but manage your expectations: Think Theory, not The Row). The designer breakout section is weak, so stick to the clearance racks and the accessories section, where you’re more likely to find treasure if you dig for it. A random assortment of brands like Kate Spade, Alice and Olivia, and Rebecca Taylor are mixed into the racks; I even spotted a pair of bold Prada sunglasses and a Rachel Antonoff dress that seemingly didn’t know how they ended up there.

    If you come up empty, hop over to the flagship Nordstrom. As the only location in the mall that carries high-end lines from the likes of Gucci and Alexander Wang, it’s realistically the only other place that could have them on sale.

    NYX Professional Makeup
    The up-and-coming makeup behemoth, a favorite among Instagram and YouTube MUAs, hosts its only Midwest brick and mortar at Mall of America. Color-lovers can play around with the mind-bogglingly affordable collection of cosmetics in a wide array of textures and tones, which typically fly off the shelves at other shops that carry them.

    Tory Sport
    The burgeoning athleisure arm of Tory Burch is a favorite for top-notch fitness clothes that toe the line between preppy and quirky. There are only five locations nationwide where you can shop the collection in full (the others are all in New York and Texas), so you’ll want to dive deep into the patterned sweaters and crazy-soft leggings that’ll ensure you won’t be twinning with anyone at yoga or Soulcycle back home.

    Your Favorite Store From When You Were 16
    It’s probably been a good decade since you’ve stepped foot into Abercrombie or American Eagle, but if you can still fit into the tween favorites, prepare for shocking dressing room moments and sale rack surprises. The Instagram effect means that these early-aughts chains are as on-trend as the minimalist website or curated boutique you regularly shop at, deeming them worthy of a second look. (Pro tip: The American Eagle on Level 2 is significantly better than its outpost on Level 1.)

    There’s so much going on in the city of Minneapolis, which is really too bad, because you’re never going to make it there with so much on offer at the mall itself. With culinary treats, flight simulators, and record-breaking ziplines, you’ll want to try all of it before venturing back to the airport — or back to your in-mall retreat.


    There are plenty — plenty! — of hotels near Mall of America, but staying on-site is recommended for full Night at the Museum vibes. (The glory of being able to pop back into your hotel room to drop off bags, take a nap, or eat ice cream in serene privacy is not to be underestimated.)

    Two hotels, the JW Marriott Minneapolis and Radisson Blu Mall of America, are connected to the mall via walkways. Both have indoor pools, robust amenities, and dining options, but the Radisson Blu is the better choice. It’s got a more style-savvy design, upscale rooms at reasonable prices, and quirky touches throughout.


    When you’re in the thick of it, you’ll feel like you’ve walked past a million Starbucks, still can’t find that one salad place, and will settle for a DQ ice cream cone for lunch. Don’t play yourself, because MOA’s food locations are worth parsing through. Grab-and-go counters and dining options are located throughout the mall, but two food courts (the newer Culinary on North as well as South Street Dining) and sit-down restaurants encompass most of Levels 3 and 4.

    If you’re looking for themed restaurants — Dick’s Last Resort, Margaritaville, Bubba Gump, Benihana, Rainforest Cafe — they're all here, but when you want actual fuel (and perhaps even nutritious food), here are your best bets.

    For health-conscious food: Mini-chainFreshii offers grain bowls, quinoa wraps, fresh juices, and other light fare you’d rarely expect to find in the deep Midwest, as well as a bottle of Sriracha on each table for good measure. Grab an extra order of Energii Bites to gnaw on while roaming the mall’s corridors, and treat yourself to a plentiful portion of the kefir-based fro-yo.

    For a quick but good meal:Naf Naf Grill, which serves its beloved falafel hummus bowls and Middle Eastern shawarma sandwiches by way of a Chipotle-style menu. If you prefer Italian food, pick up a hearty salad, bowl of angel hair pasta, or namesake wrap-like sandwich at Piada Italian Street Food, one of the other most reliable food stalls in the mall.

    For business drinks: Round up the sales team post-convention at FireLake Cocktail Bar inside the adjoined Radisson Blu hotel for a selection of local beers, creative cocktails, and small plates in an atmosphere that’s bustling without being busy.

    For a splurge-worthy burger: Since both offer locally sourced patties, it’s a tie betweenShake Shack, the beloved New York-based chain serving up classic cheeseburgers and fries at Culinary on North, and Burger Burger, which offers more customizable flavors and toppings. Both milkshakes are equal opponents, too — Shake Shack has a themed Concrete dubbed “Malt of America,” while Burger Burger serves a full menu of liquor-spiked shakes.

    For a dinner you can expense: At the base of the mall’s adjoined JW Marriott hotel is Cedar + Stone Urban Table, an upscale restaurant highlighting local ingredients and beloved Minnesotan flavors at prices you’d much prefer your company pay.

    For sippable sweets: Local chain Caribou Coffee offers plenty of sugar-sapped coffees, but where you’ll really want to head to is Chatime Tea. The milk and fruit teas come in flavors like taro, matcha, and hibiscus, and can be customized with chewy boba and jellies, not to mention sweetened to your liking.


    With a comedy club, nightly laser light shows, and an entire ground floor dedicated to a full-fledged theme park, Mall of America is as much an entertainment district as it is a shopping center.

    Nickelodeon Universe hosts 27 themed rides in total, appealing to cartoon-loving children of all ages while simultaneously containing legitimate thrills by way of inversions, airtime, and 90-degree drops. Though the oppressive height requirements will keep adults out of the glorious SpongeBob SquarePants-themed bounce house (cue eyeroll emoji), both his upside-down Rock Bottom Plunge roller coaster and Avatar Airbender can take guests up to the tippy-top of the mall’s roof and straight back down again. (For less aggressive spins and twirls, try Brain Surge and the Fairly Odd Coaster.) If you can, visit twice, riding attractions during the day to appreciate them then again at night when the lights are dimmed for an after-hours feel.

    Still, the coasters, log flume, and kiddie rides aren’t the full extent of what MOA has to offer. Dutchman’s Deck Adventure Course within Nickelodeon Universe hosts four levels of ropes course climbs and balance challenges, even letting daredevils zoom past surrounding rides on North America’s longest indoor zipline.

    FlyOver America takes guests on an eye-popping tour of the country’s greatest sights in a flight simulation theatre (that’s eerily similar to Soarin’ at Disney parks), and if you have extra time while perusing the miles-long mall, make a stop at Sea Life Minnesota Aquarium, too. Though it first feels like more of a hands-on learning center than an up-close glimpse at underwater species, its 300 foot-long ocean tunnel aquarium is a spectacle that needs to be seen. Standing below sharks, turtles, and stingrays is even more shocking when you consider it’s in a shopping mall — and that they offer snorkeling, shark dives, and overnight sleepovers.

    There’s plenty of fun to be had at the Crayola Experience regardless of age (but be warned — if you attend alone like I did, prepare for parents to be confused as hell). Still, with a make-your-own crayon machine, printable selfie coloring pages, and a wax melting contraption that turns an old crayon into a costume jewelry ring, why wouldn’t you make it a priority?

    And, of course, if you don’t want to shop at all — or need to keep yourself preoccupied while someone else does — it’s no trouble. Go for a spin at A.C.E.S. Flight Simulation Center, play a round at Moose Mountain Adventure Golf, or confuse yourself silly with the Amazing Mirror Maze or Mythbusters Exhibition. You’ll wonder why the best option for non-shopaholics at the mall back home are comfy chairs outside dressing rooms. Rotating exhibits tend to pop up, too, so check the website; a Paisley Park-sponsored gallery of Prince’s clothing was on display while we visited, and a Downton Abbey Experience offers a look at the show’s costumes and jewelry through early 2017.

    Coupon books are available on-site for a small fee at Guest Service desks, located by Level 1 entrances.

    For a list of all sales currently going on at the mall, Head to Mall of America’s “Deals“ page on its website, which lists all promotions. It’s also got a convenient list of happy hour deals, should you be looking to save on food or drinks.

    Bloomington Coupons has many dining and entertainment discounts available to print, from $5 off general admission at the Crayola Experience to 15 percent off at Freshii, one of Mall of America’s better healthy options.

    Bundling your attractions could save money in the long run. With the purchase of a wristband, Nickelodeon Universe lets you add on a handful of in-mall experiences for less than their individual cost. Purchasing admission online for most attractions prior to visiting is generally less expensive, too.

    Nickelodeon Universe offers an $8 discount on unlimited ride wristbands after 5 p.m. and regular promotions like Toddler Tuesdays, which offers a five-hour child wristband for select rides for $11.95. Chaperones ride free at Nickelodeon Universe every day, nearly halving the cost of admission on junior rides.

    And keep in mind, there’s never any sales tax on clothing purchased at Mall of America.

    What to see and do — broken down into three itineraries — based off how much time you have.

    If you have a couple of hours:

    Beeline to any of our can’t-miss stores you’re hoping to visit; getting lost is practically unavoidable, but having a clear destination helps.

    Hit at least one of Nickelodeon Universe’s rides. You can opt to keep it tame with Pepsi Orange Streak or El Circulo Del Cielo Ferris wheel, which will give a calm overview of the entire park, or test your limits with aggressive options like Rock Bottom Plunge or Avatar Airbender.

    Visiting on a layover? Don’t lug a suitcase around. Instead, pop your bag in one of the mall’s oversized lockers, available at each directional entrance of the mall as well as inside of Nickelodeon Universe.

    Enjoy a meal you’ll only find here, like Burger Burger’s John Wayne or Shake Shack’s Mall Of America-themed Concrete milkshake.

    Download the MOA app, which is extremely useful, and lean into the text concierge (1-952-479-4839) for any and all help you may need.

    If you have one full day:

    Do all of the above, and make a note of your favorite stores from our must-see list. (Even if you hit the mall hard, you won’t walk past them all.)

    Swing over the country’s coolest sights at FlyOver America’s simulation theatre, or truly go sky-high on the mall’s record-holding indoor zipline at Dutchman’s Deck Adventure Course.

    Pack in a few additional Nickelodeon Universe attractions, like the delightful “wild mouse”-style Fairly Odd Coaster and Brain Drain, a self-controlled spinner that’s best to endure prior to eating.

    Visit the in-mall aquarium to explore its fantastic walk-through ocean tunnel, or instead head to Crayola Experience to DIY an array of souvenirs.

    Taste one of the Midwest’s greatest exports: the cheese curd. Burger Burger and Cedar + Stone Urban Table offer up delicious fried versions, while the Wisconsin-themed Rybicki Cheese Shop carries them in bulk and individual-sized bags.

    Hit perennial favorites that have massive two-floor footprints here, like Forever 21, whose lower level hosts an expanded plus-size selection, as well as the new 30,000-square-foot Zara.

    Have lunch at Naf Naf Grill or Freshii, two of the Midwest’s best and healthiest quick-service options, to fuel the 10,000+ steps you’ll undertake. Opt for a more indulgent dinner elsewhere in the mall as a reward.

    Stop into single-brand shops like Fjällräven, Henri Bendel, Ivivva, and Aerie, which might not operate standalone stores back home.

    If you have the entire weekend:

    Do all of the above, but simply keep our hit-list of must-see stores handy instead of noting them ahead of time; you’ll eventually walk past them all.

    If you can, stay on-site. Experiencing the mall as your home is a one-of-a-kind sleepover experience that you won’t want to miss out on.

    Go all in at Nickelodeon Universe. Purchase an unlimited ride wristband so you can experience the log ride, Ferris wheel, and roller coasters at day and at night. Double down on attractions by enjoying both Crayola Experience and the Sea Life Minnesota Aquarium. (Aim for late afternoon, when crowds may be lighter.)

    Pop into the mall’s quirkier collection of stores like Ragstock, which carries super-affordable thrifted clothing in the back of the store, and Alpaca Connection, an all-furry-everything outpost with cozy winter wear and adorable mini versions of the llama-like animals.

    Wander through The LEGO Store and American Girl, even if you’re not looking to buy from either place. Both oversized shops are a joy to parse through, and if you’re here this long and don’t stop in, you’ve missed out.

    Last but not least, enjoy the characters of the mall, literally. Bubba Gump Shrimp Factory has a full-sized mascot wandering out front, balloon artists go from table to table at Margaritaville on stilts, and you can attend meet-and-greets with cartoon characters like Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles and SpongeBob SquarePants at Nickelodeon Universe. If you’re visiting during the holidays, don’t forget a visit with Santa.

    For more on what to do, check out this first-person account of what it’s like to spend an entire weekend there.


    Haast's eagle

    Extinct species of bird

    The Haast's eagle (Hieraaetus moorei) is an extinct species of eagle that once lived in the South Island of New Zealand, commonly accepted to be the pouakai of Maori legend.[1] It was the largest eagle known to have existed, with an estimated weight of 15 kilograms (33 lb), compared to the 9 kg (20 lb) harpy eagle.[2] Its massive size is explained as an evolutionary response to the size of its prey, the flightless moa, the largest of which could weigh 230 kg (510 lb).[3] Haast's eagle became extinct around 1400, after the moa were hunted to extinction by the first Māori.[4]


    Haast's eagle was first described by Julius von Haast in 1871 from remains discovered by the Canterbury Museum taxidermist, Frederick Richardson Fuller,[5] in a former marsh.[6] Haast named the eagle Harpagornis moorei after George Henry Moore, the owner of the Glenmark Estate, where the bones of the bird had been found.[7] The genus name was from the Greek harpax, meaning "grappling hook", and ornis, meaning "bird".[8]

    DNA analysis later showed that this bird is related most closely to the much smaller little eagle as well as the booted eagle and not, as previously thought, to the large wedge-tailed eagle.[9]Harpagornis moorei was therefore reclassified as Hieraaetus moorei.[8]

    H. moorei is estimated to have diverged from these smaller eagles as recently as 1.8 million to 700,000 years ago. If this estimate is correct, its increase in weight by ten to fifteen times is an exceptionally rapid weight increase. The suggested increase in the average weight of Haast's eagle over that period would therefore represent the largest, fastest evolutionary increase in average weight of any known vertebrate species.[citation needed] This was made possible in part by the presence of large prey and the absence of competition from other large predators.[10] A recent mitochondrial DNA study found it to be more closely related to the little eagle than the booted eagle, with an estimated divergence from the little eagle around 2.2 million years ago.[2]


    Haast's eagle attacking moaby John Megahan

    Haast's eagle was one of the largest known true raptors. In length and weight, it was even larger than the largest living vultures. Another giant eagle from the fossil record, Amplibuteo woodwardi, is more recently and scantly-described but rivalled the Haast's in at least the aspect of total length.[11] Female eagles were significantly larger than males. Most estimates place the female Haast's eagles in the range of 10–15 kg (22–33 lb) and males around 9–12 kg (20–26 lb).[12]

    A comparison with living eagles of the Australasian region resulted in estimated masses in Haast's eagles of 11.5 kg (25 lb) for males and 14 kg (31 lb) for females.[12] One source estimates that the largest females could have weighed more than 16.5 kg (36 lb).[13] The largest extant eagles, none of which are verified to exceed 9 kg (20 lb) in a wild state, are about forty percent smaller in body size than Haast's eagles.[14]

    It had a relatively short wingspan for its size. It is estimated that the grown female typically spanned up to 2.6 m (8.5 ft), possibly up to 3 m (9.8 ft) in a few cases.[15][16] This wingspan is broadly similar to the larger range of female size in some extant eagles: the wedge-tailed eagle (Aquila audax), golden eagle (A. chrysaetos), martial eagle (Polemaetus bellicosus), white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and Steller's sea eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus) are all known to exceed 2.5 m in wingspan. Several of the largest extant Old World vultures, if not in mean mass or other linear measurements, probably exceed Haast's eagle in average wingspan as well.[14][17]

    Short wings may have aided Haast's eagles when hunting in the dense scrubland and forests of New Zealand. Haast's eagle has sometimes been portrayed incorrectly as having evolved toward flightlessness, but this is not so as evidence that it flew is very strong. Instead it represents a departure from the mode of its ancestors' soaring flight to adapt to a dense woodland environment and the species probably had very broad wings.[18]

    Some wing and leg remains of Haast's eagles permit direct comparison with living eagles. The harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja), the Philippine eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi), and the Steller's sea eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus) are the largest and most powerful living eagles, and the first two also have a similarly reduced relative wing-length as an adaptation to forest-dwelling.[14] A lower mandible from the Haast's eagle measured 11.4 cm (4.5 in) and the tarsus in several Haast's eagle fossils has been measured from 22.7 to 24.9 cm (8.9 to 9.8 in).[19] In comparison, the largest beaks of eagles today (from the Philippine and the Steller's sea eagle) reach a little more than 7 cm (2.8 in); and the longest tarsal measurements (from the Philippine and the Papuan eagle) top out around 14 cm (5.5 in).[17][20][21]

    The talons of the Haast's eagle were similar in length to those of the harpy eagle, with a front-left talon length of 4.9 to 6.15 cm (1.93 to 2.42 in) and a hallux-claw of possibly up to 11 cm (4.3 in).[13] The Philippine eagle might be a particularly appropriate living species to compare with the Haast's eagle, because it too evolved in an insular environment from smaller ancestors (apparently basal snake eagles) to island gigantism in the absence of large carnivorous mammals and other competing predators.[22]

    The strong legs and massive flight muscles of these eagles would have enabled the birds to take off with a jumping start from the ground, despite their great weight. The tail was almost certainly long, in excess of 50 cm (20 in) in female specimens, and very broad. This characteristic would compensate for the reduction in wing area by providing additional lift.[12] Total length is estimated to have been up to 1.4 m (4 ft 7 in) in females, with a standing height of approximately 90 cm (2 ft 11 in) tall or perhaps slightly greater.[13]


    A model on display at Te Papaof a Haast's eagle attacking a moawith its large talons.

    The Haast's eagle preyed on large, flightless bird species, including the moa, which was up to fifteen times the weight of the eagle.[12] Its large beak also could be used to rip into the internal organs of its prey and death then would have been caused by blood loss.[citation needed] Due to the absence of other large predators or kleptoparasites, a Haast's eagle could easily have monopolised a single large kill over a number of days.[1]


    Until recent human colonisation that introduced rodents and cats, the only placental land mammals found on the islands of New Zealand were three species of bat. Birds occupied or dominated all major niches in the New Zealand animal ecology. Moa were grazers, functionally similar to deer or cattle in other habitats, and Haast's eagles were the hunters who filled the same niche as top-niche mammalian predators, such as tigers or lions.

    One study estimated the total population at 3,000 to 4,500 breeding pairs, so the Haast's eagle would have been very vulnerable to changes in the number of moa.[8]

    Early human settlers in New Zealand (the ancestors of the Māori arrived around the year 1280) preyed heavily on large flightless birds, including all moa species, eventually hunting them to extinction by around 1400.[4] The loss of its primary prey caused the Haast's eagle to become extinct at about the same time.[23]

    A noted explorer and surveyor, Charles Edward Douglas, claims in his journals that he had an encounter with two raptors of immense size in Landsborough River valley (probably during the 1870s), and that he shot and ate them;[24] but they may have been Eyles's harriers.

    Relationship with humans[edit]

    An eagle statue on Macraes Flat

    Some believe that these birds are described in many legends of the Māori, under the names Pouakai, Hokioi, or Hakawai.[25] According to an account given to Sir George Grey, an early governor of New Zealand, Hokioi were huge black-and-white birds with a red crest and yellow-green tinged wingtips. In some Māori legends, Pouakai kill humans, which scientists believe could have been possible if the name relates to the eagle, given the massive size and strength of the bird.[25] Even smaller golden eagles are capable of killing prey as big as sika deer or a bear cub.[26] However, it has also been argued that the "Hakawai" and "Hokioi" legends refer to the Coenocorypha snipe—in particular the extinct South Island species.[27]

    Artwork depicting Haast's eagle now may be viewed at OceanaGold's Heritage and Art Park at Macraes, Otago, New Zealand. The sculpture, weighing approximately 750 kg (1,650 lb; 118 st), standing 7.5 metres (25 ft) tall, and depicted with a wingspan of 11.5 metres (38 ft) is constructed from stainless steel tube and sheet and was designed and constructed by Mark Hill, a sculptor from Arrowtown, New Zealand.[28]

    See also[edit]


    1. ^ abGiant eagle (Aquila moorei), Haast's eagle, or Pouakai. Museum of New Zealand: Te Papa Tongarewa. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
    2. ^ abKnapp, Michael; Thomas, Jessica E.; Haile, James; Prost, Stefan; Ho, Simon Y.W.; Dussex, Nicolas; Cameron-Christie, Sophia; Kardailsky, Olga; Barnett, Ross; Bunce, Michael; Gilbert, M. Thomas P. (May 2019). "Mitogenomic evidence of close relationships between New Zealand's extinct giant raptors and small-sized Australian sister-taxa". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 134: 122–128. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2019.01.026. PMID 30753886.
    3. ^Davies, S. J. J. F. (2003)
    4. ^ abPerry, George L.W.; Wheeler, Andrew B.; Wood, Jamie R.; Wilmshurst, Janet M. (1 December 2014). "A high-precision chronology for the rapid extinction of New Zealand moa (Aves, Dinornithiformes)". Quaternary Science Reviews. 105: 126–135. Bibcode:2014QSRv..105..126P. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.09.025.
    5. ^Holdaway, Richard (October–December 1989). "Terror Of The Forest". Notornis. New Zealand Geographic (4). Retrieved 23 August 2020.
    6. ^Tudge, Colin (6 August 2009). The Secret Life of Birds: Who they are and what they do. Penguin Books Limited. p. 117. ISBN .
    7. ^Haast, Julius (1872). "Notes on Harpagornis Moorei, an Extinct Gigantic Bird of Prey, containing Discussion of Femur, Ungual Phalanges and Rib". Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 4. New Zealand Institute. pp. 193–196.
    8. ^ abcEvans, Kate (November 2018). "Return of the Lost Birds". New Zealand Geographic (154): 30. ISSN 0113-9967.
    9. ^Bunce, M.; Szulkin, Marta; Lerner, Heather R. L.; Barnes, Ian; Shapiro, Beth; Cooper, Alan; Holdaway, Richard N. (2005). "Ancient DNA Provides New Insights into the Evolutionary History of New Zealand's Extinct Giant Eagle". PLOS Biology. 3 (1): e9. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030009. PMC 539324. PMID 15660162.
    10. ^"Ancient DNA Tells Story of Giant Eagle Evolution". PLOS Biology. 3 (1): e20. 4 January 2005. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030020. PMC 539337.
    11. ^Suarez, W. (2004). The identity of the fossil raptor of the genus Amplibuteo (Aves: Accipitridae) from the Quaternary of Cuba. Caribbean Journal of Science, 40(1), 120-125.
    12. ^ abcdBrathwaite, D. H. (December 1992). "Notes on the weight, flying ability, habitat, and prey of Haast's Eagle (Harpagornis moorei)"(PDF). Notornis. Ornithological Society of New Zealand. 39 (4): 239–247. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
    13. ^ abcWorthy, T. & Holdaway, R., The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric Life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press (2003), ISBN 978-0253340344
    14. ^ abcWood, Gerald (1983). The Guinness Book of Animal Facts and Feats. Guinness. ISBN .
    15. ^Maas, P. "Recently Extinct Animals - Species Info - Haast's Eagle". The Sixth Extinction. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
    16. ^"Haast's Eagle". Paleobiology and Biodiversity Research Group. Archived from the original on 5 May 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
    17. ^ abFerguson-Lees, J.; Christie, D. (2001). Raptors of the World. London: Christopher Helm. ISBN .
    18. ^"Haast's eagle, New Zealand giant eagle". BBC. Archived from the original on 28 February 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
    19. ^Hamilton, A. 1888. On Avian Remains in Southland. Transactions, The New Zealand Institute.
    20. ^Ladyguin, Alexander (2000). The morphology of the bill apparatus in the Steller's Sea Eagle. First Symposium on Steller's and White-tailed Sea Eagles in East Asia pp. 1–10; Ueta, M. & McGrady, M.J. (eds.) Wild Bird Society of Japan
    21. ^Blas R. Tabaranza Jr. "Haribon – Ha ring mga Ibon, King of Birds". Haring Ibon's Flight…. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
    22. ^Lerner, H. R., & Mindell, D. P. (2005). Phylogeny of eagles, Old World vultures, and other Accipitridae based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 37(2), 327-346.
    23. ^Tennyson, A.; Martinson, P. (2006). Extinct Birds of New Zealand. Wellington, New Zealand: Te Papa Press. ISBN .
    24. ^Worthy, T. H.; Holdaway, R. N. (2002). The lost world of the Moa: Prehistoric Life of New Zealand. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN .
    25. ^ abRodgers, Paul (14 September 2009). "Maori legend of man-eating bird is true". The Independent. Retrieved 14 September 2009.
    26. ^"Golden eagle attacks deer in rare camera trap footage". ZSL Conservation. 26 September 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
    27. ^Miskelly, C. M. (1987). "The identity of the hakawai"(PDF). Notornis. 34 (2): 95–116.
    28. ^"Giant art sculptures pop up in Otago". New Zealand: 3 News. 20 December 2008. Archived from the original on 18 May 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2009. text versionArchived 24 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine

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    American Eagle (Marvel)

    American Eagle in Marvel Assistant-Sized Spectacular v1 #1.

    American Eagle is a male superhero that features in Marvel Comics.


    Jason Strongbow

    Upon arriving in Chicago, he met with Steel Spider who first believed Strongbow to be part of the government forces sent to apprehend him. American Eagle revealed that he had come to help curb Osnick's vigilante activity as he feared it would bring about a harsh response from the authorities. However, they were too late as the Thunderbolts arrived thus forcing Jason to team up with Steel Spider to fight them. American Eagle fired an arrow that pinned Karla Sofen to the dropship thus leaving her out of the fight. (Thunderbolts v1 #114)

    As the Avengers chairman, T’Challa began to recruit numerous super-powered beings as part of his Agents of Wakanda who served as a support staff for the heroes when they were based at Avengers Mountain. Among those recruited was American Eagle who joined the group. (Avengers v8 #12)


    Personality and attributes

    Powers and abilities


    • American Eagle was created by Doug Moench and Ron Wilson where he made his first appearance in Marvel Two-in-One Annual v1 #6 (October 1981).


    • Marvel Two-in-One Annual v1: (1981)
    • Thunderbolts v1:
    • Avengers v8:

    External Links

    This article is a stub. You can help Multiversal Omnipedia by expanding it.


    How to get to Mn Children's Museum-MOA in Bloomington by Bus or Light Rail?

    Public Transportation to Mn Children's Museum-MOA in Bloomington

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    Eagle moa american

    The reunification of lust with beauty. all-consuming harmony. Godly angelic deeds with a burning passion inherent in Satan - all this was between us. The boundaries of good and evil, heaven and earth, hell and paradise were lost. White, not tanned chest beckoned with its purity, her belly fluttered like a tulip petal in the wind, with every touch of my lips.

    Best Of Eagle Attacks (GRIZZLY, KANGAROO...\u0026MAN) HD

    He toiled, looked through the monocle at the lower tier, found the charming features of a new acquaintance. He looked at her, reveling in the glitter of huge stones in the earlobes, the profile of the head, chiseled and filigree. Shoulders, unfolded and proud, like those of girls learning the basics of science at the Smolny Institute for Noble Maidens.

    He impatiently. Tapped the soles of his boots, shaking the mezzanine and knocking the prima donna out of rhythm.

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    " When he watches the phallus. Enter me, he gets very excited and after a couple of minutes changes the artificial to the real one, and I get another sex. I often use this technique, since I need several times an hour, and he needs a rest, when I can't stand arousal, I just start to caress myself, and I don't.

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